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Highly sensitive dopamine detector uses 2-D materials

A supersensitive dopamine detector can help in the early diagnosis of several disorders that result in too much or too little dopamine, according to a group led by Penn State and including Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute ...

Research reveals microplastic content levels in seafood

Levels of plastic contamination has been found in samples of popular seafood such as prawns, oysters and crabs, with the highest content found in sardines, according to University of Queensland research.

How COVID-19 could impact travel for years to come

In late 2019, the International Air Transport Association (IATA) published its "Economic Performance of the Airline Industry" report. It contained a 2020 forecast of 4.1 percent growth in global air traffic demand and net ...

Finding toxic carcinogenic metals faster in foods and water

Researchers at the University Johannesburg have developed an efficient and more sensitive method to test for dangerous levels of heavy metals like arsenic, cadmium and chromium in vegetables and water. The method can be used ...

Hydrogel paves way for biomedical breakthrough

Published in Advanced Functional Materials, a University of Sydney team of biomedical engineers has developed a plasma technology to robustly attach hydrogels—a jelly-like substance which is structurally similar to soft ...

Plastics, pathogens and baby formula: What's in your shellfish?

The first landmark study using next-generation technology to comprehensively examine contaminants in oysters in Myanmar reveals alarming findings: the widespread presence of human bacterial pathogens and human-derived microdebris ...

Study finds dangerous mercury levels in Amazon fish

Nearly one-third of the fish in the Brazilian Amazon state of Amapa have such high levels of mercury caused by illegal mining that they are dangerous for human consumption, according to a new study.

ENCODE3: Interpreting the human and mouse genomes

Scientists around the world have access to a rich trove of information through the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE)—annotated versions of the human and mouse genomes that are vital for interpreting their genetic codes. ...

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Health

At the time of the creation of the World Health Organization (WHO), in 1948, Health was defined as being "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity".

This definition invited nations to expand the conceptual framework of their health systems beyond issues related to the physical condition of individuals and their diseases, and it motivated us to focus our attention on what we now call social determinants of health. Consequently, WHO challenged political, academic, community, and professional organisations devoted to improving or preserving health to make the scope of their work explicit, including their rationale for allocating resources. This opened the door for public accountability [3].

Only a handful of publications have focused specifically on the definition of health and its evolution in the first 6 decades. Some of them highlight its lack of operational value and the problem created by use of the word "complete." Others declare the definition, which has not been modified since 1948, "simply a bad one." [4]. More recently, Smith suggested that it is "a ludicrous definition that would leave most of us unhealthy most of the time." [5].

In 1986, the WHO, in the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, said that health is "a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living. Health is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities." Classification systems such as the WHO Family of International Classifications (WHO-FIC), which is composed of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) also define health.

Overall health is achieved through a combination of physical, mental, emotional, and social well-being, which, together is commonly referred to as the Health Triangle.

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