Stable catalysts for new energy

On the way to a CO2-neutral economy, we need to perfect a whole range of technologies—including the electrochemical extraction of hydrogen from water, fuel cells, or carbon capture. All these technologies have one thing ...

Creating self-constructed folded macrocycles with low symmetry

The synthesis and self-organization of biological macromolecules is essential for life on earth. Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich chemists now report the spontaneous emergence of complex ring-shaped macromolecules with ...

New clues shed light on importance of Earth's ice sheets

Researchers examining subglacial waters both from Antarctica and Greenland found that these waters have higher concentrations of important, life-sustaining elements than previously thought, answering a big unknown for scientists ...

Identifying compound classes through machine learning

Everything that lives has metabolites, produces metabolites and consumes metabolites. These molecules arise as intermediate and end products from chemical processes in an organism's metabolism. Therefore, they not only have ...

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Chemical reaction

A chemical reaction is a process that always results in the interconversion of chemical substances. The substance or substances initially involved in a chemical reaction are called reactants. Chemical reactions are usually characterized by a chemical change, and they yield one or more products, which usually have properties different from the reactants. Classically, chemical reactions encompass changes that strictly involve the motion of electrons in the forming and breaking of chemical bonds, although the general concept of a chemical reaction, in particular the notion of a chemical equation, is applicable to transformations of elementary particles, as well as nuclear reactions. Different chemical reactions are used in combination in chemical synthesis in order to get a desired product. In biochemistry, series of chemical reactions catalyzed by enzymes form metabolic pathways, by which syntheses and decompositions ordinarily impossible in conditions within a cell are performed.

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