Discovery of the oldest evidence of motility on Earth

An international multi-disciplinary team coordinated by Abderrazak El Albani at the Institut de chimie des milieux et matériaux de Poitiers (CNRS/Université de Poitiers) has uncovered the oldest fossilised traces of motility. ...

Chemists take a closer look at the spot where water meets air

Water, despite its central place in so many processes vital to life on Earth, remains a chemical mystery in many respects. One of those mysteries is the nature of water at the exact point where it comes into contact with ...

Scientists use a blender to reveal what's in our smartphones

Every year, 1.4 billion mobile phones are produced around the world. Many of us have more than one, but what are they made of, where do those materials come from, and what is the best thing to do with our devices once we ...

Yeast produce low-cost, high-quality cannabinoids

University of California, Berkeley, synthetic biologists have engineered brewer's yeast to produce marijuana's main ingredients—mind-altering THC and non-psychoactive CBD—as well as novel cannabinoids not found in the ...

International team of physicists continues search for new physics

Dark matter, which is thought to account for nearly a quarter of matter in the universe (but has yet to be observed), has perplexed physicists for decades. They're constantly looking for something surprising to show up in ...

Turning desalination waste into a useful resource

The rapidly growing desalination industry produces water for drinking and for agriculture in the world's arid coastal regions. But it leaves behind as a waste product a lot of highly concentrated brine, which is usually disposed ...

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Chemical reaction

A chemical reaction is a process that always results in the interconversion of chemical substances. The substance or substances initially involved in a chemical reaction are called reactants. Chemical reactions are usually characterized by a chemical change, and they yield one or more products, which usually have properties different from the reactants. Classically, chemical reactions encompass changes that strictly involve the motion of electrons in the forming and breaking of chemical bonds, although the general concept of a chemical reaction, in particular the notion of a chemical equation, is applicable to transformations of elementary particles, as well as nuclear reactions. Different chemical reactions are used in combination in chemical synthesis in order to get a desired product. In biochemistry, series of chemical reactions catalyzed by enzymes form metabolic pathways, by which syntheses and decompositions ordinarily impossible in conditions within a cell are performed.

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