Essential virulence proteins of corn smut discovered

To infect its host plant maize, the fungal parasite Ustilago maydis uses a complex of seven proteins. Numerous findings reveal an essential role of the complex in causing disease and suggest a widespread occurence in fungal ...

SARS-CoV-2 variants from mink evade inhibition by antibodies

It has been known for about a year that minks can become infected with SARS-CoV-2. The virus had been transmitted from humans to farmed mink and mutated in infected animals. Mutations were acquired in the spike protein, which ...

Researchers generate human-monkey chimeric embryos

Investigators in China and the United States have injected human stem cells into primate embryos and were able to grow chimeric embryos for a significant period of time—up to 20 days. The research, despite its ethical concerns, ...

A bacterial toxin that acts as a mediator rather than a killer

Traditionally, bacterial toxins have been seen as killers of target cells. But is there more than meets the eye? Umeå University Professor Teresa Frisan and her team have discovered that toxin-host interactions are more ...

Getting to the core of HIV replication

Viruses lurk in the gray area between the living and the nonliving, according to scientists. Like living things, they replicate but they don't do it on their own. The HIV-1 virus, like all viruses, needs to hijack a host ...

First complete coronavirus model shows cooperation

The COVID-19 virus holds some mysteries. Scientists remain in the dark on aspects of how it fuses and enters the host cell; how it assembles itself; and how it buds off the host cell.

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Host (biology)

In biology, a host is an organism that harbors a virus or parasite, or a mutual or commensal symbiont, typically providing nourishment and shelter. In botany, a host plant is one that supplies food resources and substrate for certain insects or other fauna. Examples of such interactions include a cell being host to a virus, a legume plant hosting helpful nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and animals as hosts to parasitic worms, e.g. nematodes.

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