Rainfall causes microplastic transport into the atmosphere

Oceans, lakes and rivers often contain a large number of microplastic particles on their surface. Impacting raindrops cause many droplets with an almost equally high concentration of microplastics to be thrown up into the ...

Radio-frequency wave scattering improves fusion simulations

In the quest for fusion energy, understanding how radio-frequency (RF) waves travel (or "propagate") in the turbulent interior of a fusion furnace is crucial to maintaining an efficient, continuously operating power plant. ...

Unifying models of chorus wave frequency chirping

Whistler mode chorus waves are electromagnetic emissions common in planetary magnetospheres. Among other impacts, their scattering of magnetospheric electrons is one driver for the formation of auroras. An important attribute ...

Improved fluorescent amino acids for cellular imaging

New research conducted by researchers in the lab of Penn's E. James Petersson in collaboration with Oregon State University and the University of Washington describes how proteins in living cells can be engineered to include ...

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Computer simulation

A computer simulation, a computer model or a computational model is a computer program, or network of computers, that attempts to simulate an abstract model of a particular system. Computer simulations have become a useful part of mathematical modeling of many natural systems in physics (computational physics), chemistry and biology, human systems in economics, psychology, and social science and in the process of engineering new technology, to gain insight into the operation of those systems, or to observe their behavior.

Computer simulations vary from computer programs that run a few minutes, to network-based groups of computers running for hours, to ongoing simulations that run for days. The scale of events being simulated by computer simulations has far exceeded anything possible (or perhaps even imaginable) using the traditional paper-and-pencil mathematical modeling: over 10 years ago, a desert-battle simulation, of one force invading another, involved the modeling of 66,239 tanks, trucks and other vehicles on simulated terrain around Kuwait, using multiple supercomputers in the DoD High Performance Computer Modernization Program; a 1-billion-atom model of material deformation (2002); a 2.64-million-atom model of the complex maker of protein in all organisms, a ribosome, in 2005; and the Blue Brain project at EPFL (Switzerland), began in May 2005, to create the first computer simulation of the entire human brain, right down to the molecular level.

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