Rapid warming in the Gulf of Maine reverses 900 years of cooling

Rapid 20th century warming in the Gulf of Maine has reversed long-term cooling that occurred there during the previous 900 years, according to new research that combines an examination of shells from long-lived ocean quahogs ...

Beating the heat becoming more difficult, science says

An intense heatwave swept across Europe in July. The scorching heat fuelled fires in Spain, France and Portugal. With the thermometer topping 40 °C, the United Kingdom (UK) was the center of attention after breaking temperature ...

Future-proofing the Great Lakes region through climate research

Researchers are studying the way warming water temperatures will impact the Great Lakes region. Their work shows that small differences in lake surface temperatures can have a big impact on summer climate and can fuel extreme ...

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Climate model

Climate models use quantitative methods to simulate the interactions of the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, and ice. They are used for a variety of purposes from study of the dynamics of the climate system to projections of future climate.

All climate models take account of incoming energy as short wave electromagnetic radiation (which in this context means visible and ultraviolet, not to be confused with shortwave) to the earth as well as outgoing energy as long wave (infrared) electromagnetic radiation from the earth. Any imbalance results in a change in the average temperature of the earth.

The most talked-about models of recent years have been those relating temperature to emissions of carbon dioxide (see greenhouse gas). These models project an upward trend in the surface temperature record, as well as a more rapid increase in temperature at higher altitudes.

Models can range from relatively simple to quite complex:

This is not a full list; for example "box models" can be written to treat flows across and within ocean basins. Furthermore, other types of modelling can be interlinked, such as land use, allowing researchers to predict the interaction between climate and ecosystems.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA