Climate simulation more realistic with artificial intelligence

Accurately modeling extreme precipitation events remains a major challenge for climate models. These models predict how the earth's climate may change over the course of decades and even centuries. To improve them especially ...

Study suggests La Niña winters could keep on coming

Forecasters are predicting a "three-peat La Niña" this year. This will be the third winter in a row that the Pacific Ocean has been in a La Niña cycle, something that's happened only twice before in records going back to ...

Small eddies play a big role in feeding ocean microbes

Subtropical gyres are enormous rotating ocean currents that generate sustained circulations in the Earth's subtropical regions just to the north and south of the equator. These gyres are slow-moving whirlpools that circulate ...

Study links changes in length of day with climate prediction

Scientists have made a key breakthrough in the quest to accurately predict fluctuations in the rotation of the Earth and so the length of the day—potentially opening up new predictions for the effects of climate change.

Rainy days on track to double in the Arctic by 2100

Today, more snow than rain falls in the Arctic, but this is expected to reverse by the end of the century. A new study shows the frequency of rainy days in the Arctic could roughly double by 2100.

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Climate model

Climate models use quantitative methods to simulate the interactions of the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, and ice. They are used for a variety of purposes from study of the dynamics of the climate system to projections of future climate.

All climate models take account of incoming energy as short wave electromagnetic radiation (which in this context means visible and ultraviolet, not to be confused with shortwave) to the earth as well as outgoing energy as long wave (infrared) electromagnetic radiation from the earth. Any imbalance results in a change in the average temperature of the earth.

The most talked-about models of recent years have been those relating temperature to emissions of carbon dioxide (see greenhouse gas). These models project an upward trend in the surface temperature record, as well as a more rapid increase in temperature at higher altitudes.

Models can range from relatively simple to quite complex:

This is not a full list; for example "box models" can be written to treat flows across and within ocean basins. Furthermore, other types of modelling can be interlinked, such as land use, allowing researchers to predict the interaction between climate and ecosystems.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA