Cancer cells 'remove blindfold' to spread

Cancer cells spread by switching on and off abilities to sense their surroundings, move, hide and grow new tumors, a new study has found.

Entropy production gets a system update

Nature is not homogenous. Most of the universe is complex and composed of various subsystems—self-contained systems within a larger whole. Microscopic cells and their surroundings, for example, can be divided into many ...

Novel cellulose finding may lead to new chemicals, biofuels

A multi-institutional research group led by two Penn State faculty members has identified, for the first time, how cellulose crystals orient themselves relative to the cell wall in plants, with potential implications for ...

Newly discovered enzyme helps make valuable bioactive saponins

Many plants, including legumes, make naturally occurring chemicals called saponins. For example, the medicinal plant licorice produces the saponin glycyrrhizin, a potent natural sweetener that also has antiviral and other ...

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