Police use of fatal force is identified as a leading cause of death in young men

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Police violence is a leading cause of death of young men in the United States with black men 2.5 times more likely to be killed by law enforcement over their lifetime than white men, according to a Rutgers study.

The study, published in PNAS, examined fatality risks during encounters—some 11,456 between 2013-2017—and found that African-American men and women, American Indian/Alaska Native men and women and Latino men face a higher lifetime risk of being killed by police than do their white peers.

"The inequality is not surprising," said lead author Frank Edwards, assistant professor in the School of Criminal Justice at Rutgers University-Newark, noting the police killings of like Michael Brown and Eric Garner and boys like Tamir Rice and the protests that followed bringing national attention to the racialized character of against civilians.

"All you have to do is turn on the news to see that people of color are at a much greater risk of police-related harm. What we lack in this country are the solid estimates of police related deaths because there is no official database where this information is stored."

The Rutgers study used data compiled by the National Vital Statistic System's mortality files and Fatal Encounters (FE), a journalist-led database that documents deaths involving police where cases are identified through public records and news coverage. Edwards said the unofficial media-based methods provide more comprehensive information on police violence than the limited official data collected.

The aim of the research, Edwards said, is to highlight the need to create a database that would accurately reflect the police violence that occurs.

"We haven't really known for sure how often these killings have been happening because the data hasn't been good enough," said Edwards. "But if we are going to try and change police practices that aren't working, we need to track this information better."

While statistics show that police in the United States kill more people than police in other advanced industrial democracies, researchers say real estimates of how often this occurs are not available. Official data is needed because these violent encounters, they insist, have profound effects on health, neighborhoods, life chances and politics, and have resulted in structural inequalities in the United States between people of color and white people.

The study found that the risk of for each group peaks between the ages of 20 and 35 and declines with age. The highest mortality rate for men is between the ages of 25-29 when police use-of-force is deemed to be one of the leading causes of death, behind accidents—including drug overdoses, motor vehicle traffic death and other accidental fatalities—suicide, other homicides, heart disease and cancer.

Black men face a 1 in 1,000 chance of being killed by police over their lifetime compared to about 1 in 2,000 for men in general and about 1 in 33,000 for women—about 20 times lower than men.

This new research found that American Indian men were 1.5 times more likely to be killed by police than and American Indian women were about 1.5 times more likely to be killed by police than white women. While Latino men were 1.4 times more likely to be killed than their white counterparts, Latina women were about 1.2 times less likely to be killed than white women. Black women, however, were 1.4 times more likely to be killed by police than white .

Edwards says the study reinforces calls to treat police violence—which has increased by as much as 50 percent since 2008—as a public health issue. While black people are disproportionately more likely than to be killed by police, the rate of white deaths by police have also been increasing in recent years, according to the research.

"The Bureau of Justice Statistics needs to develop a comprehensive system that would track police-related deaths," said Edwards. ''We need to increase transparency of police use-of-force if we are going to decrease the number of civilian deaths in this country as a result of these encounters."

The study stops short in evaluating current policy but says reforms are needed, including the creation of more social welfare and public health programs, adequate funding of community-based services and restricting the use of armed officers as first responders to mental health and other crisis situations where police killings have taken place.

"Our work should examine how race, gender, age, social class, disability and where someone lives exposes them to this type of violence and death," Edwards said.


Explore further

New study finds police-related fatalities may occur twice as often as reported

More information: Frank Edwards el al., "Risk of being killed by police use of force in the United States by age, race–ethnicity, and sex," PNAS (2019). www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1821204116
Provided by Rutgers University
Citation: Police use of fatal force is identified as a leading cause of death in young men (2019, August 5) retrieved 21 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-08-police-fatal-death-young-men.html
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Aug 05, 2019
This study is racist. It compare race numbers without giving additional relevant information. Blacks are far more likely to commit crimes. In fact according to a US govt study in 1992, 55% of murderers were black, whereas they only represented less than 15% of the US population. It is absolutely no surprise that police use more fatal force against blacks than compared to the average american. They should. It is correct.

Aug 05, 2019
@Brat loves police violence.

Aug 05, 2019
Da, you just proved yourself a purveyor of fake news. You are a typical troll. PHYS.ORG editors, you should ban these kind of commentators and comments from this website.

Aug 05, 2019
@Brat loves fake news

Aug 05, 2019
Da scheide loves self-deception. He loves many forms of self-gratification.

It would be much more honest if they compared statistics of black vs white being killed for the same crimes.

"Michael Brown and Eric Garner' killed themselves. Everybody who knows the facts, knows this.

Aug 05, 2019
"Bio
Frank Edwards received his Ph.D. in Sociology from the University of Washington in 2017 and joined the Rutgers-Newark School of Criminal Justice in 2018. His work focuses on how systems of social control produce and reinforce inequality"

-So hes already biased. Isnt he?

Aug 05, 2019
All you have to do is turn on the news to see that people of color are at a much greater risk of police-related harm

Even worse, blacks ("people of color") are at much greater risk of black-related harm. According to FBI crime statistics for 2017 where the race of the victim and the perpetrator are known, 88% of the the murderers of blacks are other blacks. 9% are whites.

The same data shows victims of homicide by race/ethnicity of:

Blacks 17.9 per 100,000
Latinos 4.2 per 100,000
Whites 3.3 per 100,000

Blacks are being murdered at rates far higher than are Latinos or Whites and the perpetrator is almost always another black. This is not a problem of racism. It's a problem of inner-city, poor black culture.

https://ucr.fbi.g...-offense

See tables 2 and 6

Aug 05, 2019
well of course American Blacks commit more crimes
white officers will automatically harass them for everything from talking too loudly on the sidewalk
too arrest them for the crime of driving like a white man

& it's all downhill from there into institutionally sanctioned slavery
lots of profits to be made for the white investors!

three centuries of African women & children being raped by Brit & Euro scum has greatly diminished the genetic quality of African descendants
there is no longer any real difference than irrelevant petty tint & curl

the bigots are bewailing from their cribs
because the coloreds are actually manly enough to actively pursue the American Dream of the Peculiar Institution

to claim an equal entitlement to rapine & pillage that historically have been a White Privilege

Aug 05, 2019
Last year, 8000 blacks were shot and killed by other blacks mostly in the U.S. 35,000 are wounded. Most are young black men. Now, please show me how cops are the leading cause of death? Drugs are second.

Aug 05, 2019
Zoom out. Worldwide, the bottom rung of society disproportionately contributes to crime. In South America, Amerindians. In Australia, aborigines. In China the non-Han minorities. In NZ the Maori. US blacks just happen to disproportionately be the urban poor. If you think that discrimination against them (as shown in this article) isn't one of the causes you are naive.

Aug 06, 2019
"Police use of fatal force is identified as a leading cause of death in young men"

Sadly, the complete indoctrination of American youth into the belief and fully accepted political and social immoralities at Universities such as Rutgers is an ongoing continuation of the teachings of Karl Marx, Saul Alinsky, and Vladimir Lenin. Such Communistic ideals are taught in order to encourage extreme political and social radicalism. Young men (and young women) are also taught that they must "fight the power", which is seen as the authority of the US government and its affiliates in the various States. Due mostly to such indoctrinations, American youth are taught to have no respect for authority and the Law. Often, they cite the Freedoms provided by the First Amendment to mindlessly commit crimes or to flout the authority of Law Enforcement.
Police have the job and the authority to protect the public from potential criminals, and they also have to protect themselves from potential harm.

Aug 06, 2019
The race, colour, ethnicity and culture of young men and women are irrelevant to the American Police. What IS relevant is whether or not a CRIME is being committed, OR the possibility of a potential crime is being planned, even if hasn't been accomplished yet. Police have to take both into consideration so that they may determine what IS happening, OR what may be about to happen.
Police are trained to observe, identify, and then to take action if needed. If someone is behaving in a suspicious way that could end up in a potentially criminal action, then it is imperative that the Police act quickly to observe, identify, and make a determination that benefits all involved.
The big problem is that American youth are no longer TAUGHT to respect the Police and to avoid doing or saying anything that would lead the Police to suspect that a crime is about to be committed. Most of the deaths of young Americans could be avoided if Parents, teachers, clergy would teach them to avoid bad behaviou

Aug 06, 2019
A very important factor which is not even considered in the study is how often a fatal encounter with the police is precipitated by resisting the police. We see very frequently on the news where there was a fatal encounter with the police. In almost every case, the deceased was resisting arrest, running away to avoid arrest, refusing to cooperate with arrest, fighting the police, etc.


Aug 06, 2019
It strikes me, as an historian, that most of the so-called 'arguments' put forward by those posters who are trying to suggest that there is no racist or police brutality-problem are of the same nature as those put forward by supporters of oppressive regimes in the past.

I'm sure many of them would be shocked to hear that their arguments could also be heard in the Soviet Union to defend the aggression against those who engaged in 'hooliganism' (opposition, whether passive or active, to totalitarian control). I would guess that they might be surprised, but far less shocked, to see that Falangist Spain, Fascist Italy, Greece under the military junta, Pinochet's Chile, etc. continue the list...and apparently, so do their latter-day supporters.

Aug 06, 2019
sillyegghead screeching that everyone should be a groveling coward like him/her/it's self

Aug 06, 2019
three centuries of African women & children being raped by Brit & Euro scum has greatly diminished the genetic quality of blah
This is known as 'mewling'.

Willis might want to look into the much greater and more enduring problem of brown people throughout Eurasia and around the Mediterranean enslaving, raping, torturing, and exterminating black and yes white people during the same period.

He might even want to titillate hisself with tales of koisan extermination by the bantu which was only halted by british (you know, white) intervention.

But willis don' care 'bout no facts do he?

Stinking bigots hate the truth.

Aug 06, 2019
"Police violence is a leading cause of death of young men in the United States .......... "

Again total PC BS!!!!!!

A black man is 2500 times more likely to be killed by another black man!

Aug 06, 2019
When the very first 14 words of an article is false what can one expect from the rest of it.

The best way to solve the complaints about police enforcement is to designate a section of each major city a police free zone. Then all of the people who feel abused can live in their own free society.

Aug 06, 2019
Anima this does not make much sense.

"Zoom out. Worldwide, the bottom rung of society disproportionately contributes to crime. "
" If you think that discrimination against them (as shown in this article) isn't one of the causes you are naive."

How is arresting a criminal raciest? US blacks are in poverty due to a faulty culture. The opportunities are there for any race willing to educate themselves and contribute to society. Just look at the rap culture the glorifies crime.

Aug 06, 2019
MR166 I hear you, the opportunities are there. But discrimination does reduce economic outcomes in targeted populations. It increases poverty, which correlated to crime. I'm not making a political statement, that's just statistical facts.

Aug 07, 2019
so deer otto, if i understand your diatribe correctly?
Turk & Roman masters taught your ancestral primitive tribe of savages how to be beastly to pother Human beings?

& that's your excuse for the last few centuries of beastly abuse of Africans as chattel?

that you feel sorry for yourself cause those damn Turks & Romans are to blame for all your inadequacies of defective genes

Aug 07, 2019
"Police violence is a leading cause of death of young men in the United States .......... "

Again total PC BS!!!!!!

A black man is 2500 times more likely to be killed by another black man!


Are you borderline illiterate? Can you not tell the difference between "A leading cause" and "THE leading cause"? Do you want to be taken seriously despite not being able to understand the most basic elements of the language you are posting in?

Aug 07, 2019
TQ I hope that you are not actually teaching anyone because you are too biased to do a credible job.

https://www.stati...by-race/

If you can call these numbers a "Leading" cause you lack reasoning power.

Aug 07, 2019
TQ if you think that police shootings are a leading cause of death then you must agree that living in Chicago is also a leading cause of black deaths.

Aug 07, 2019
Please note that it says "a leading cause of death of young men", not "a leading cause of death of young BLACK men".

The point that young black men get killed by the police far more often than young white men is quite separate from that.

Your link lists the ethnic makeup of police fatalities, but it doesn't say anything about the various causes of death of young men in the United States. Which is what my remarks about your terrible reading comprehension were about. Your mind jumps straight to race. But it's not about race, it's about young people dying.

From the article: "The highest mortality rate for men is between the ages of 25-29 when police use-of-force is deemed to be one of the leading causes of death, behind accidents[...], suicide, other homicides, heart disease and cancer."

So THAT's what the title referred to. It's the 6th largest cause of death in young men. Ususally, "leading causes of death" would be a top-10 list, so the wording is entirely justified.

Aug 07, 2019
Taking the above into consideration, it is striking how you immediately latched on to race. The title of the article clearly didn't specify anything about race or ethnicity, yet you immediately attacked it with ferocity on the subject of race. I'd be inclined to say that you have some pretty serious issues there, and I would guess that part of your bizarre flailing around is to do with the fact that, deep down, you realize that there is something not quite right about how black people are treated in your country, but you hate yourself for even considering that notion.

That's just speculation on my part, of course. Not like your intensely valuable assessments of my teaching skills, bias and credibility, of course, which are, I'm sure, founded in a thorough and methodical analytical process.

Aug 07, 2019
Sorry TQ but the police do not even enter into the top 10.
https://www.veryw...-2223960

Face it the liberals just hate the police until of course they need one.

Aug 07, 2019
You're only making yourself look worse. This time, you simply provide a list where police violence isn't considered separate from other kinds of violence, thus not ranking it. Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence. And a single entertainment website's list that fails to include this metric is hardly even absence of evidence, it's simply noise.

But it gets worse. Not only does your list fail to provide any data that could shed light on the subject we are discussing, it actually **discusses a different demographic** from the one we are talking about - your link is about **15 to 24 year old people**, whereas the article that so triggered your deranged hissy-fit is still talking about **25 to 29 year old men**. Not only does 'people' also include women (yes, really), 15 to 24 year olds are also younger than 25 to 29 year olds. Try it out on a calculator if you don't believe me.

Aug 07, 2019
ms666 has a sordid history of hatemongering
no lie is too blatant trying to overcome his/her/it's deep-rooted inferiority to pretty much the rest of the Human Race
& for that matter all the Hominids

Aug 07, 2019
@Mr166
I checked your link and you have to pay to get the source information. not very credible, considering...

also - I checked some sources (BJS, CDC, FBI) and their data is absolutely not "2017 to 2019" considering not all data is even yet collected for 2018, let alone 2019 (example: https://www.cdc.g...eath.htm ), so I seriously question the veracity of your link

also note: "a leading cause" doesn't mean "the top 10" - that is your choice of selection. a leading cause is determined by the overall volume of information and the selection process of the individual

I'm just going to simply ask the author about sources since the e-mail is available

Aug 07, 2019
"also note: "a leading cause" doesn't mean "the top 10" - that is your choice of selection. a leading cause is determined by the overall volume of information and the selection process of the individual"

I see Capt. So that author discounts or ignores all of the causes that diminish the point that is being made so that his/her cause can become "a leading cause". Yup, that is exactly how propaganda is created.

Aug 07, 2019
well ms666
as you are a low-quality circuit board at a russian or saudi dark web site?
you would have intimate experience at producing propaganda for your masters

Aug 07, 2019
@mr166
So that author discounts or ignores all of the causes that diminish the point that is being made so that his/her cause can become "a leading cause"
1- please show me that by posting the relevant sections of the above study indicating that the discounts or ignores anything

2- don't make ASSumptions when you don't have all the information

3- never ASSume that the article reflects the study information accurately

I asked the author to clarify and either comment here or forward the study so I could share the information directly from the source rather than make any assumptions about what it means

you could do the same before continuing to jump to conclusions (etc)

Aug 08, 2019
@MR166:

Now you choose to latch on to the number of leading causes, and how somehow other causes might "diminish" the relevance of the SIXTH LEADING CAUSE OF DEATH IN 25-29 YEAR OLD MEN, ignoring entirely how your link failed entirely to address the same demographic as the article you were attempting, in a pathetically incompetent way, to disprove.

You are really sad. You've had your ass handed to you repeatedly over your frankly insane ramblings, and still you pretend you have the upper hand.

What's even sadder is that there are hordes of equally deranged freaks running around, whose far right sympathies cause even their most basic skills of reasoning and reading comprehension to fail entirely.

No wonder you are in a constant battle with science - you seem to hate intelligence of any kind.

Aug 08, 2019
I find it pretty hilarious that I get downvotes for pointing out the objective fact that MR166's 'evidence' doesn't even address the subject he's trying to disprove. I mean, are there seriously people here who don't get that "people aged 15-24" is not the same as "men aged 25-29"?

Ideology before reality. That seems to be the slogan for the rabid rightists trying to push their insane politics here.

Aug 08, 2019
We have people here in the US working 24/7 trying to destroy our culture. Minorities are pitted against whites, women against men, poor against the less poor, gays against straights, greens against a normal life and civilians against the police that protect them.

This is all part of a master plan to undermine the US.

if you want to worry about death rates worry about the rapid rise in drug deaths and other forms of suicide including suicide by cop.


Aug 08, 2019
Then if you still have some worry energy left in you, worry about the Deep State government here in the US and how it is working 24/7 to overthrow a duly elected president. It seems that your vote only counts when you vote for a Deep State approved candidate. BTW I do not want to hear anything about the popular vote. That is not how the US elects a president. The Electoral College was created so the all of the nation would get a say in how things are run not just the big cities.

Aug 08, 2019
Ah yes, I was wondering when you were going to throw in the conspiracy theories.

You were certainly never going to address the fact that you got called out on trying to disprove the main point of the article with information from an entertainment website that didn't even refer to the same demographic as this article.

Aug 08, 2019
ms666 has all the culture of disease-bearing vermin

a quisling copperheaded traitor
worshiping a bogus POTUS
agitproping for pimp putin
& his whore trumpsteronfire

yes the Electoral College is to permit every state input on national affairs
which brings us to the 2nd Amendment which provides the sovereign states the teeth to defend their liberties with "organized" "drilled" militia

not one word in there about allowing mentally retarded morally deficient maniacs access to firearms

ms666 ,if toy were actually literate & competent to read U.S. History?
the effort to achieve "one man, one vote" to allow "big" cities or any urban areas equal political standing with rural districts was not accomplished until the 1950's under a Republican President Eisenhower.

perhaps you stayed awake at the back of class just long enough to have heard that name mentioned?

so far malpractice666 you are stumbling around the field batting zero & dropping every easy flyball

Aug 08, 2019
@mr
We have people here in the US working 24/7 trying to destroy our culture
irrelevant and conspiracist ideation without valid verifiable evidence isn't justification for making false claims about physical evidence that you ASSume just because you wish something is real

take note:

https://journals....rintable

Aug 08, 2019
We have people here in the US working 24/7 trying to destroy our culture. Minorities are pitted against whites, women against men, poor against the less poor, gays against straights, greens against a normal life and civilians against the police that protect them.

This is all part of a master plan to undermine the US.

if you want to worry about death rates worry about the rapid rise in drug deaths and other forms of suicide including suicide by cop.


Yes and they are currently occupying the Whitehouse.

Aug 12, 2019
Anyone notice how the posting styles of willis and stumpy are eerily similar? Its... creepy

Sorry captn did not mean to insult you. This time.

Aug 12, 2019
@Otto
Sorry captn did not mean to insult you. This time
not insulted. thanks

"Imitation is the sincerest form of flattery that mediocrity can pay to greatness." ― Oscar Wilde


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