Suppressed star formation in the early universe

Suppressed star formation in the early universe
A galaxy cluster map portraying the density of galaxies members in the massive cluster SPT-CLJ0421. Astronomers studying five such clusters in the epoch about 4.5 billion years after the big bang conclude that their star formation is quenched. Symbols show the positions of individual galaxies and the cross marks the position of the SPT detection. Credit: Strazzullo et al. 2019

Massive clusters of galaxies, some with more mass than a hundred Milky Way galaxies, have been detected from cosmic epochs as early as about three billion years after the big bang. Their ongoing star formation makes them bright enough to be detected at these distances. These kinds of clusters were predicted by simulations of cosmological evolution but their properties are very uncertain. Astronomers piecing together the evolution of stars in the universe are particularly interested in these clusters because of their abundance of stars and activity.

Star formation in galaxies is by no means a steady process. Not only can there be bursts of activity, prompted perhaps by a collision with a neighboring galaxy, but the opposite can occur. Star formation can be self- limiting because its massive young produce winds and supernovae that can blow apart the natal molecular clouds and disable future . Combined with the disruption induced by jets from an active nuclear supermassive black hole, this disruptive process is called quenching and is thought to be able to bring star formation to a halt. Whether or not this occurs in the , and when and how it proceeds, is a key area of comic research.

CfA astronomers Matt Ashby and Esra Bulbul are members of the South Pole Telescope (SPT) team that discovered and studies massive galaxy clusters in the early universe. They recently completed a follow-up study of star formation and the stellar populations in most distant clusters found in the SPT surveys. Using the IRAC camera on the Spitzer Space Telescope along with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field camera, they probed five clusters located in the epoch about 4.5 billion years after the , a time when galaxies in general were particularly active in producing new stars. Clusters of this size are exceedingly rare at these distances, and this is the first such study ever done of them.

Using the infrared colors of the galaxies in the selected SPT clusters, the scientists were able to characterize the stars and the star formation activity. The scientists found that, curiously, during this epoch the massive clusters tend to host a mixture of galaxy types with quiescent being quite common. Apparently in these quiescent members the quenching of star formation has already occurred. The astronomers conclude that star formation can be efficiently suppressed in the central regions of the most massive clusters even in these early cosmic epochs when the most intense star formation is occurring.


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Star formation in distant galaxy clusters

More information: V. Strazzullo et al. Galaxy populations in the most distant SPT-SZ clusters, Astronomy & Astrophysics (2019). DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201833944
Journal information: Astronomy & Astrophysics

Citation: Suppressed star formation in the early universe (2019, May 10) retrieved 21 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-05-suppressed-star-formation-early-universe.html
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May 10, 2019
The astronomers conclude that star formation can be efficiently suppressed in the central regions of the most massive clusters even in these early cosmic epochs when the most intense star formation is occurring.

God's way of saving some action for later scenes...

May 10, 2019
From the article -
"Combined with the disruption induced by jets from an active nuclear supermassive black hole, this disruptive process is called quenching and is thought to be able to bring star formation to a halt."
- 'bring Star formation to a halt' should have added "for that time period", since the quenching should be a temporary event until another event shows up when the movement (motion and momentum) of Matter/Energy such as in Stars begins to flow again toward one another.

"Whether or not this occurs in the early universe, and when and how it proceeds, is a key area of comic research.
- this text, written by Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics is clearly either written by a novice or is a typo that wasn't caught before publishing. But it does give the piece a bit of a laugh.

@four
Atheists might ask you which god are you referring to. Of course there is only ONE Creator God and all the rest are the result of multiple human religions.

May 10, 2019
-contd-
"The scientists found that, curiously, during this epoch the massive clusters tend to host a mixture of galaxy types with quiescent galaxies being quite common. Apparently in these quiescent cluster members the quenching of star formation has already occurred. The astronomers conclude that star formation can be efficiently suppressed in the central regions of the most massive clusters even in these early cosmic epochs when the most intense star formation is occurring."
- Apparently, sufficient time had elapsed for 'mixtures of galaxy types" to have formed, as well as at any stage of Star generation in those galaxies. Stars require 'fuel' of Matter/Energy to form and increase in size. If there was not enough fuel, then Stars cannot be expected to form and grow, so that their formation is suppressed. This is normal and natural.
But the images of those regions has made the trip to our 'scopes over a period of billions of Earth years. The originals have moved on already

May 10, 2019
There are some very complicated issues of galaxy formation. Unfortunately, here is the same problem as with the stars. The origin of galaxies remains unclear, in spite of huge activity in the field. What the "formation" means? It means that we have the material that is assembling into galaxies.
https://www.acade...ome_From
https://www.acade...rvations

May 11, 2019
what lies beyond the boundary of the universe - does physics stop and dreams begin ?

May 11, 2019
maybe that is where the akashic field is "was it called milk?" etheric memory that supports surrounds the universe . omniverse ect

May 11, 2019
"massive clusters tend to host a mixture of galaxy types with quiescent galaxies being quite common".

This could have bearing on how life evolves, since the Milky Way are one of those calm galaxies (though also in the diffuse backwaters of the massive clusters).

what lies beyond the boundary of the universe


? Ee have known for a century know, thanks to general relativity and its peerless, self contained description of the universe, that there is no "boundary" to the universe. (Except the relative horizons of local observers such as us.) The universe is quite literary all, all space and time and objects and events, there is. https://en.wikipe...Big_Bang

May 12, 2019
this text, written by Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics is clearly either written by a novice or is a typo that wasn't caught before publishing. But it does give the piece a bit of a laugh.
Neither; the quenching-mechanism may be regarded as a certain temporary comic-relief.

May 12, 2019
what lies beyond the boundary of the universe

I would have thought that the balloon-analogy would have been answering this question with complete satisfaction for the past ~30 years, in elementary school. How hard is science that people can go through 12 years of instruction, and even if they can't understand the carbon-cycle, would be able to understand the balloon-analogy within a minute? It is one of the   m o s t   transparent of cosmogenic issues on the table.

May 13, 2019
what lies beyond the boundary of the universe

I would have thought that the balloon-analogy would have been answering this question with complete satisfaction for the past ~30 years
.

Depends. I have good 3D visualization, perhaps that is why I did not grok the (unnecessary) dimensional reduction of the 2D balloon analogy. I had reasoned myself into the cosmological scale analogy of a raisin' raisin dough even before I read that it was a thing, and I prefer to point to it instead.

May 13, 2019
what lies beyond the boundary of the universe

I would have thought that the balloon-analogy would have been answering this question with complete satisfaction for the past ~30 years
.

Depends. I have good 3D visualization, perhaps that is why I did not grok the (unnecessary) dimensional reduction of the 2D balloon analogy. I had reasoned myself into the cosmological scale analogy of a raisin' raisin dough even before I read that it was a thing, and I prefer to point to it instead.
The trade-off in the raisin-dough is the potential for misapprehending the expansion of the lump of dough as a simple 3-D   m o d e l   of the expanding universe: 'OK, teacher, but what lies   b e y o n d   the boundary of that ball of dough?'

The balloon analogy does require a brief introduction to flat-land, and the (local) mapping of F-L to local areas of the spherical balloon surface. Starting in grade 6, the full development would come in grade 12.

May 15, 2019
what lies beyond the boundary of the universe

I would have thought that the balloon-analogy would have been answering this question with complete satisfaction for the past ~30 years
.

Depends. I have good 3D visualization, perhaps that is why I did not grok the (unnecessary) dimensional reduction of the 2D balloon analogy. I had reasoned myself into the cosmological scale analogy of a raisin' raisin dough even before I read that it was a thing, and I prefer to point to it instead.
The trade-off in the raisin-dough is the potential for misapprehending the expansion of the lump of dough as a simple 3-D   m o d e l   of the expanding universe: 'OK, teacher, but what lies   b e y o n d   the boundary of that ball of dough?'


Possibly, but that is infinity for you. That way I did not have to understand global topology. Indeed it is easier to understand the LCDM universe we see is Minkowski flat FLRW instead of 'approximately de Sitter'.

May 15, 2019
There is a one-to-one mathematical correspondence between the holographic model of the universe and that of a black hole.

From a metaphysical standpoint, this at least suggests the universe might be a black hole within another universe, and so on. (Incidentally FLRW and it's relatives work just as well on a contracting model as an expanding one, and the red shift probably has more to do with a decreasing speed of light than expansion.) Anyhow, the suggestion lends itself more towards an infinite number of contracting but finite universes, each individual universe being finite in both time and space.

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