Record-shattering underwater sound

In brief: Record-shattering underwater sound
After blasting tiny jets of water with an X-ray laser, researchers watched left- and right-moving trains of shockwaves travel away from microbubble filled regions. Credit: Claudiu Stan/Rutgers University Newark

A team of researchers has produced a record-shattering underwater sound with an intensity that eclipses that of a rocket launch. The intensity was equivalent to directing the electrical power of an entire city onto a single square meter, resulting in sound pressures above 270 decibels. The team, which included researchers from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, published their findings on April 10 in Physical Review Fluids.

Using the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), SLAC's X-ray laser, the researchers blasted tiny jets of water with short pulses of powerful X-rays. They learned that when the X-ray laser hit the jet, it vaporized the water around it and produced a shockwave. As this shockwave traveled through the jet, it created copies of itself, which formed a "shockwave train" that alternated between high and low pressures. Once the of underwater crosses a certain threshold, the water breaks apart into small vapor-filled bubbles that immediately collapse. The pressure created by the shockwaves was just below this breaking point, suggesting it was at the limit of how loud sound can get underwater. 

A better understanding of these trains is essential to creating new techniques that ward off damage in miniature samples that are suspended in to allow their atomic-scale structure to be measured. This could advance research in areas such as biology and , leading to more effective drugs and more efficient materials.

The team was led by Gabriel Blaj, a staff scientist at SLAC and Stanford University, and Claudiu Stan, at Rutgers University Newark. It also included researchers from the Stanford PULSE Institute and the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland. LCLS is a DOE Office of Science user facility. This work was supported by the Department of Energy's Office of Science and Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences Division.


Explore further

Watching molecules split in real time

More information: Gabriel Blaj et al. Generation of high-intensity ultrasound through shock propagation in liquid jets, Physical Review Fluids (2019). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevFluids.4.043401
Citation: Record-shattering underwater sound (2019, May 17) retrieved 15 September 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-05-record-shattering-underwater.html
This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
267 shares

Feedback to editors

User comments

May 17, 2019
If anyone is baffled by the astonishing frame-rate of that gif (~10^10 f/s) it's not a continuous take, but a series of single shots, with a 0.15 ns-incremented delay between shots. The fastest (framing-camera) rate for continuous capture is ~1 billion f/s.


May 17, 2019
If anyone is baffled by the astonishing frame-rate of that gif (~10^10 f/s) it's not a continuous take, but a series of single shots, with a 0.15 ns-incremented delay between shots. The fastest (framing-camera) rate for continuous capture is ~1 billion f/s.
No its not.
"Researchers have created a new world's fastest camera. Called T-CUP, the camera can capture a mind-boggling 10 trillion frames per second

"The camera was developed by scientists at the INRS branch of the Université du Québec in Canada, and it doubles the previous record speed. Lund University's FRAME camera boasted 5 trillion frames per second in 2017, beating out MIT's one-trillion-frame-per-second camera of 2011.

"At 10 trillion frames per second, T-CUP is able to freeze time in order to see and study things that are traditionally too fast to visualize — things like laser pulses can be seen in slow motion"

May 17, 2019
If anyone is baffled by the astonishing frame-rate of that gif (~10^10 f/s) it's not a continuous take, but a series of single shots, with a 0.15 ns-incremented delay between shots. The fastest (framing-camera) rate for continuous capture is ~1 billion f/s.
No its not.
"Researchers have created a new world's fastest camera. Called T-CUP, the camera can capture a mind-boggling 10 trillion frames per second

"At 10 trillion frames per second, T-CUP is able to freeze time in order to see and study things that are traditionally too fast to visualize — things like laser pulses can be seen in slow motion"
That isn't a framing-camera ('FRAME' is an acronym, btw)
" T-CUP was used to record the first-ever movie of non-repeatable temporal focusing of a single ultrashort laser pulse in a dynamic scattering medium." These cameras strictly record light-itself phenomena. Hence: "things like laser pulses..." There are no framing-cameras at >10^9 f/s
for  o b j e c t s .

May 17, 2019
The fastest (framing-camera) rate for continuous capture is ~1 billion f/s.
No its not.
"Researchers have created a new world's fastest camera. Called T-CUP, the camera can capture a mind-boggling 10 trillion frames per second
Yes it is.

Nowhere in the T-CUP paper do the authors call this a framing-camera. It's not a casual descriptor. 'Framing-camera' pertains to a specific type of high-speed cinematography, and captures motion or transitions of light, self-illuminating, and exogenously-illuminated, phenomena.
Single-shot real-time femtosecond imaging of temporal focusing
Jinyang Liang, Liren Zhu & Lihong V. Wang
______
This (as far as I'm aware) is the world's fastest framing-camera: nacinc com/products/ultra-high-speed-framing-cameras/UBSi/

May 17, 2019
This Textual Wall Of Sound

When this is conducted in the sea
For when this type of experiment gets anywhere near fishy water
Be it fresh or salty, streams, rivers, lakes, seas the outcome could be dire
For as always is this case with these experiments
The power output is upped the anti
To demonstrate its properties
As 1000s of miles away blue whales will have no escape from this sound
Especially when fishermen see this advantage
Of fish's floating lifeless to be more easily netted
After a blast of sound, creating irreparable consequences for the rest of this sea life

It will be likened to underwater nuclear blasts without this radiation

May 18, 2019
Your camera (from the paper):
"To observe the shock waves, we used time-resolved optical
microscopy with illumination from a femtosecond pulsed optical laser[20, 21]. An in-vacuum microscope with a 50× long-working distance objective (Mitutoyo) and a high-speed camera (Phantom Miro M340, Vision Research)... "

-and from the mfr product page:

"M340 has a throughput of 3.2 Gpx/s and a frame rate of 800 fps at full resolution.
Both cameras have a minimum exposure time of 1µs and a straddle time of 1.4µs."

-which is not an

"Invisible® Vision Ultra UBSi series of compact ultra high speed framing cameras are designed to capture up to 24 mega-pixel performance frames at speeds up to and beyond a true 1 Billion frames per second"

... IOW they somehow recorded images from the femtosecond laser-illuminated object on a conventional camera, not a 'framing-camera'.

Or am I missing something?

May 19, 2019
For a Camera
to record
a femtosecond pulse
1/10-15th of a seconds
this meaneths
this 1/10-15s does not last 1/10-15s
because these are individual packets of time
(1/10-15s)+(1/10-15s)+…
where each (1/10-15s) the light this sensor detects rises and fall in intensity
as this shutter blinks between frames in (1/10-15s)
this sensors electronics have this reaction time
that, also means this currant from this sensor rises and falls to and from this sensor
the outcome of these properties
the useful light realised of sufficient intensity
is less than (1/10-15s), more like half of (1/10-15s)
effectively dark periods between each (1/10-15s)+(1/10-15s)+...
we then have an actual image lasting (1/5x10-16s)
in real time (1/5x10-16s)+(1/10-15s)+(1/5x10-16s)+(1/10-15s)+(1/5x10-16s)....
as the (1/10-15s) is a time period of effective darkness
so unless this laser light being imaged down to 1/10-15th of a second
it of such intensity of light
No image will be observed

May 19, 2019
This Light Stopping Camera Quandary

Apparently, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), SLAC's X-ray laser is a free service
where this imaging facility is included
LCLS takes X-ray snapshots of atoms and molecules at work
revealing fundamental processes in materials
technology and living things
Its snapshots can be strung together into movies that show chemical reactions as they happen.
numerous scientists
each year conduct groundbreaking experiments
into the fundamental processes of chemistry
materials and energy science
biology and technology at LCLS
Its experiments
generated 600 plus peer-reviewed scientific publications in the first six years of operation
almost a quarter of them appearing in prominent journals like Science and Nature

This actual camera facility is not open for disagreement
It is part of the experimental equipment provided
https://lcls.slac...overview

May 19, 2019
Femtosecond Week

For those fascinated with this femto atomic world
We have, Femtosecond Week
At
https://home.slac...nd-week/

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more