Water formation on the moon

Water formation on the moon
Credit: University of Hawaii at Manoa

For the first time, a cross-disciplinary study has shown chemical, physical, and material evidence for water formation on the moon. Two teams from the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa collaborated on the project: physical chemists at the UH Mānoa Department of Chemistry's W.M. Keck Research Laboratory in Astrochemistry and planetary scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP).

Although recent discoveries by orbiting spacecraft such as the Lunar Prospector and the hard lander Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite suggest the existence of water ice at the poles the , the origin of this water has remained uncertain. Lunar water represents one of the key requirements for permanent colonization of the moon as a feedstock for fuel and energy generation (hydrogen, oxygen) and also as "drinking water."

The breakthrough research is outlined in "Untangling the formation and liberation of water in the ," lead-authored by UH Manoa postdoctoral fellow Cheng Zhu and colleagues in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Chemistry Professor Ralf I. Kaiser and HIGP's Jeffrey Gillis-Davis designed the experiments to test the synergy between hydrogen protons from , lunar minerals, and micrometeorite impacts. Zhu irradiated samples of olivine, a dry mineral that serves as a surrogate of lunar material, with deuterium ions as a proxy for solar wind protons.

Water formation on the moon
Water and their precursors were stored in lunar silicates and released into the gas phase by (micro)meteorite impact. Credit: Molecules and data courtesy of Cheng Zhu and Ralf I. Kaiser; background image courtesy of NASA/Goddard/Conceptual Image Lab.

Deuterium irradiated only "experiments did not reveal any trace of water formation, even after increasing the temperature to lunar mid-latitude daytime temperatures," Zhu explained. "But when we warmed the sample, we detected molecular deuterium, suggesting that deuterium—or hydrogen—implanted from the solar wind can be stored in the lunar rock."

Kaiser added, "Therefore, another high-energy source might be necessary to trigger water formation within the moon's minerals followed by its release as a gas that can be detected."

The second set of deuterium irradiation experiments was followed by laser heating to simulate the thermal effects of micrometeorite impacts. A burst of ions with mass-to-charge ratios matching that of singly ionized heavy water was observed in the gas phase during the laser pulses. "Water continued to be produced during laser pulses after the temperature was increased, suggesting that the olivine was storing precursors to that were released by laser heating," said Zhu.

To image these processes and interpret the broader impact on the moon and other bodies, HIGP's Hope Ishii and John Bradley used focused ion beam–scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy in the Advanced Electron Microscopy Center. They observed sub-micrometer-sized surface pits, some partially covered by lids, suggesting that water vapor builds up under the surface in vesicles until they burst, releasing water from lunar silicates upon micrometeorite impact.

"Overall, this study advances our understanding on the origin of water as detected on the moon and other airless bodies in our solar system such as Mercury and asteroids and provides, for the first time, a scientifically sound and proven mechanism of formation," HIGP's Jeffrey Gillis-Davis concluded.


Explore further

A dash of water on the lunar rocks

More information: Cheng Zhu et al. Untangling the formation and liberation of water in the lunar regolith, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2019). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1819600116
Citation: Water formation on the moon (2019, May 21) retrieved 18 September 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-05-formation-moon.html
This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
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May 21, 2019
The Moon Chemical composition
………………………………….…Maria…….Highland
Silica…………..……SiO2…….45.4%......45.5%
Alumina…………...Al2O3…...14.9%.......24.0%
Lime………………...CaO…….11.8%.......15.9%
iron(II) oxide……..FeO….......14.1%.........5.9%
magnesia…………..MgO….....9.2%..........7.5%
titanium dioxide..TiO2…........3.9%..........0.6%
sodium oxide…....Na2O….....0.6%...........0.6%
Total…………………………….99.9%.........100.0%
Small amounts (ranging from near zero to> 100 ppm) of hydrogen due to migration (The Processes of Violent Disintegration and Natural Creation of Matter in the Universe prema Sun https://www.svemi...ti.com/) can not create water (significant quantities). This is confirmed by the chemical composition of the Moon, Mars ...

May 21, 2019
duck, you are creating gross generalities from very limited observation. Until you have prospected every hectare?
You are just guessing the meaning of your data sets .

If I am correctly understand these researcher's claims?

They are hypothesizing that there are natural chemical processes below the Moon's surface, that combine to form water?
As water vapor, these leak to the surface?
Maybe I missed where they describe, why?
I'd guess, a vacuum siphon effect.

The article does not really address the long term results.
Of exposure to vacuum & radiation will breakdown the molecular structure of the water vapor.
& the Solar Wind will blow away the elemental gases.

There may be pockets of ices hidden in shadows.
"You've been there?"
"You touched them?"
"Selfish pig! Next time, bring me back some Moon ice cubes for my drinks!"

But even those ice pockets are temporary & will eventually subliminate into Space.
To slowly be replaced as the "siphon's" clear underneath?

May 21, 2019
@raw
You and the authors claim that:
There may be pockets of ices hidden in shadows.
"You've been there?"
"You touched them?"
Therefore you "Selfish pig! Next time, bring me back some Moon ice cubes for my drinks!"

The databases are the opposite of the empty stories from the author, which you are trying to (without basic knowledge) to represent.

My comments are quotes from the database, your comment is urination upwind.

May 21, 2019
Watery Regolith

Oxygen nitrogen and carbon dioxide exist as atmospheric moleules
but water does not exist as an atmospheric molecule
water exists as vapour not a gas
which means
water exists in regolith
as liquid in porous regolith
frozen in porous regolith
pools of water in hollow regolith depressions
as this moon is theorised to be invoked in earthly collisions
just as this moon came to be just as this earth came be
through meteoric collisions in this vacuum
wherever this earth obtained it watery pools
this moon obtained these watery pools
where else but from this frozen Asteroid and Kuiper belts
earth's losing its atmosphere, its leaking into space
there is frozen water in these poles
And in liquid form in under watery caverns, in this porous regolith

It follows this moon contains this exact same water as this earth
if we dig in the right place water is in abundance in this moon
It's just a question of looking in this right place for these Moonchine watery wells

May 22, 2019
I was very surprised while reading the following:
"Zhu irradiated samples of olivine, a dry mineral that serves as a surrogate of lunar material, with deuterium ions as a proxy for solar wind protons."

The olivine "serves as a surrogate of lunar material".

Well now, I had half expected that the experiments were/would have been carried out on GENUINE MOON ROCKS/MATERIAL. -- BUT THEY WEREN'T -- causing me to pause and wonder WHAT HAPPENED TO ALL THE MOON ROCKS THAT WERE RETURNED FROM THE MOON???

Sorry. I get carried away sometimes when reading about FAKE MOON MATERIALS being used IN LIEU of the Real Thing.
I was certain that Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin and the other later visitors to the Moon had brought back a substantial amount of Moon rocks other than the moon dust in their shoes.
Now this. WHY could they not use a few pieces of genuine moon rock for their experiments instead of a fake surrogate? Borrow some from a museum. What is the problem with that?

May 22, 2019
@granville583762
The temperature of the Moon (on the sunny side where samples are taken) is ~ 390 ° K (+ 120 ° C).

Earth "Air also contains a variable amount of water vapor , on average around 1% at sea level" https://en.wikipe...of_Earth

Instead of the song, enclose evidence.

May 22, 2019
The temperature of the Moon (on the sunny side where samples are taken) is ~ 390 ° K (+ 120 ° C).

Earth "Air also contains a variable amount of water vapor , on average around 1% at sea level" https://en.wikipe...of_Earth

The chemical composition of the regolith varies with grain size.The <10 µm fraction is chemically fractionated from the bulk soil. In most cases the <10 µm fraction is enriched in Al 2 O 3 , CaO, Na 2 O, K 2 O, light rare earth elements, and Th and depleted in MgO, FeO, MnO, and Sc. https://agupubs.o...04p00761

Instead of the song, enclose evidence.

May 22, 2019
WHY could they not use a few pieces of genuine moon rock for their experiments instead of a fake surrogate? Borrow some from a museum. What is the problem with that?

Real moon rocks costs more than 50.000$ a gram. If you are going run large scale tests and smash some rock with lasers, that would be very very expensive. Maybe now that they have some preliminary results, they could get funding to try it with a real moon stone.

May 22, 2019
Who will rid us of this rocket propellant

cortezz
SEU> WHY could they not use a few pieces of genuine moon rock for their experiments instead of a fake surrogate? Borrow some from a museum. What is the problem with that?

cortezz> Real moon rocks costs more than 50.000$ a gram. If you are going run large scale tests and smash some rock with lasers, that would be very very expensive. Maybe now that they have some preliminary results, they could get funding to try it with a real moon stone.

As that you prove this point, cortezz

Of all these millions of tons of rocket propellant that is chucked back on earthy regolith
as we go to this Moonchine regolith
after all these millions of tons of propellant
we are only able to carry a few ounces of Moonchine regolith
such that we are down to performing Moonchine experiments on this Olivine
Because this Moonchine regolith costs 23 million dollars lb

So these Moonchinery billions are relevant

May 22, 2019
wduckss
wduckss> @granville583762
The temperature of the Moon (on the sunny side where samples are taken) is ~ 390 ° K (+ 120 ° C).

Earth "Air also contains a variable amount of water vapor , on average around 1% at sea level" https://en.wikipe...of_Earth

Instead of the song, enclose evidence.

In words of song, wduckss
this pointeth being raisedeth, wduckss
is that like this Moonchinerith atmosphere has lost its molecular atmosphere
this Moonchinery airless atmosphere is this earthly atmosphere
because this earthly atmosphere is leaking out into this vacuous vacuum of space
that if and when this earthly atmosphere mirrors this Moonchinery airless atmosphere
as these earthly Moonchinery planetary planets were born into this vacuum
their heavenly regolith came from this same stable
as both, wduckss
Contain this watery regolith, for in these Moonchinery cavernous underground caverns

Contain billions of tons of H2O, just like this watery Earth

May 22, 2019
Gravitationally watery regolith

When this earth shuffles of its remaining molecular atmospheric atmosphere
exposed to these Moonchineries extremes of temperature
these earthly polar frozen poles will retain their icy grip
in these underground cavernous caverns will retain their watery pools
in depths of this airless earthly earth
this earth will retain its watery regolith
for this earth once had an atmosphere
as once did this Moonchine
as once did this Martian planetary regolith have atmosphere as earth once had
the difference in these Martian Moonchinery planetary planets that earth has in abundance
is Gravity, earthly gravity is of sufficient strength to hold on to this molecular atmosphere
it is this strength of gravity retaining this molecular atmosphere
that is allowing this hidden watery regolith
this deep down cavernous watery regolith
That when it emerges on this earthly regoliths surface

Gravitation is solely responsible for retaining these heavenly watery seas

May 22, 2019
SEU, as you probably have surmised
I was very surprised while reading the following:
"Zhu irradiated samples of olivine, a dry mineral that serves as a surrogate of lunar material, with deuterium ions as a proxy for solar wind protons."

The olivine "serves as a surrogate of lunar material".

It is far to expensive to travel these 250 thousand miles
as this propellant is far too heavy
by this time we arrive on this Moonchine regolith
we are down to our last few ounces of propellant
we have this difficult choice of what to leave behind on this regolith
One of the crew or this Moonchine regolith
so as we have burnt these millions of tons of propellant chucked back on planet earth
if it were not for this Moonchines 1/6th gravity
These remaining few ounces left over would have been insufficient to blast of this Moonchine

So there you have it, SEU
When someone rids us of this propellant

We will be able to transport millions of tons of Moonchine regolith to our hearts desire

May 22, 2019
For if you doubt these inadequacies of this propellant

SEU, have you considered this Martian dream
for when we send our Martian rovers
when NASA sails these rovers to mars
as these first earthly Martian explorers expect to return in good health
to claim their billion dollar reward
For NASA to prove this Martian expeditionary return

Is possible for NASA to send a probe to this Martian orbit
land this probe on mars
empty its cargo of rovers
then return these rovers to this Martian probe
blast of this Martian regolith
return to earth
safely parachute into this earthly ocean
For to be collected and returned to NASAs original launch site

For if NASA cannot for whatever reason perform this vital preliminary task safely in a timely manner

We are not at this stage of readiness to even contemplating planetary expeditions to mars
NASA presently relies on propellant
As in 50 years NASA will still rely on propellant

May 22, 2019
@ granville583762
"earthly gravity is of sufficient strength to hold on to this molecular atmosphere
it is this strength of gravity retaining this molecular atmosphere"

Mass of Titan moon is 0.0225 Earth's
Mass of Moon is 0.012300 of Earth's

Please do not sing nonsense.
Before commenting verify the claim in the database.

Mass of Titan moon is 0.0225 Earth's, atmosphere of Titan moon is ~ 1,5 of Earth atmosphere.

Do you realize (now) I'm talking about?
There is a huge difference between empty stories and evidence.

May 22, 2019
granny. before you go all batshit crazy again?
You want an accounting of the Moon rocks brought to Earth?

That ouiija board in front of you?
That you use to do your research upon?
Is the perfect instrument to
trace the missing specimens.

Just ask your spirit guides to make inquiries among all your favorite dead crooked politicians.

Maybe they can put together a list of all their corrupt campaign contributors & other sleazy characters.
To whom they passed out the Moon rocks as "party" favors?

Of course you better hurry. There is a "free" market (historically known as a thief's market) speculating in real & counterfeit stones.

If you are successful?
Now you got the headache of separating a few Kgs of the gravel & dust remaining of the "Real"Moon rocks.

From the tonnage of fakes.

Resolving that issue though? Will leave you & the duck & all the other antiscience woomongers with the quandary of resolving the confusion of isotopes.

Good Luck, granny!

May 22, 2019
Planetary Gravitational Force
wduckss> Mass of Titan moon is 0.0225 Earth's, atmosphere of Titan moon is ~ 1,5 of Earth atmosphere

Mass of titans moon
Diameter of titans moon
The actual molecular constituents of titans atmosphere
Titan's atmospheric density
Titan's total mass of atmosphere

Wduckss
For we must not sing this nonsense.
Before commenting, verify all these variables, in this claim in this database

For wduckss, from your factoids we might if your database is factually true
We might be able to re-establish this Moonchine atmosphere
Terraform this Moonchine
And
Create this heaven that exists on this earth on this Moonchine

For it expected of granville to do his duty and check out the new factoids
and returneth with a comment on these findings

For wduckss, I like your idea that this Moonchine was once this earthly heaven, that one day giant sequoias trees may once again roam this Moonchine

May 22, 2019
For in this world of rrwillsj
rrwillsj
That ouiija board in front of you?
That you use to do your research upon?
Is the perfect instrument to
trace the missing specimens.

Is likened to these quantum fluctuations
for in these quantum fluctuations
where these quantum breezes doeth blow
rrwillsj your theory of conspiracy
that on this darkside
these Moonchineries are justifying these regolith fakes
for these Moonchineries who mine regolith on this darkside
have a lucrative market a darkmarket from this darkside
as this darkside regolith
sells on this darkmarket
darkside regolith
for it is believed by these Moonchinians
darkside regolith has magical powers
powers of restorative of youth
restores Moonchineries frailties of age to those child hood days
this conspiracy
there is an extraordinary number of darkside regolith fakes
Rrwillsj that is why these Moonchineries are back on this darkside
Trying to establish a semblance of integrity in these billions of darkside fakes

May 22, 2019
TITANS 16DAY TIDALY LOCKED MOON

moon diameter = 5,149.5 km
moon mass = 1.3452 x 1023 kg
moons surface gravity = 1.352 m/s2
moons escape velocity 2.639 km/s
moons atmosphere = 146.7 kPa (1.45 atm)
consists of basically 96% N2
TITANS 16DAY TIDALY LOCKED MOON ATMOSPHERE
Basically is 96% Nitrogen at 1.5 atms, with 1/5th earth's gravity
at 1/5th earth's gravity is very similar to our moons
as this earthly moon and titans moon both have magnetic fields
and mars has this solar induced magnetic field
So what is wduckss, preventing mars and our earthly moon having a 1.5 atm of their own?

May 22, 2019
So what is wduckss, preventing mars and our earthly moon having a 1.5 atm of their own?

Has it, wduckss
Anything perchance, wduckss
got something to do with our Sun?
How far is Titan from our Sun?
Compared
To mars and our moon blasting this regolith with this close by solar radiative wind

May 22, 2019
I hate to break it to granny & duck & all the other certifiable loomeytick cranks...

Ahh! Who am I kidding?
I LOOOOVE TO RUB YOUR CREDULOUSLY CRAPULOUS NOSES IN YOUR OWN COPROLITE!

Not so sorry to have to be the one honest enough (meanest enough?) to break the news to you boys.
But there is no on/off switch for the Moon's reflective shine.

No matter how many mason jars of radiator distillery you guzzle.

& no, the Sun doesn't come with ab on/off switch either.

It's time for your gang of intellectual rejects to get rid of those infantile knickers.
Pull on a pair big boy pants, & grow up.
Accept that Reality doesn't give a a flatulent whoop about meeting your expectations.


May 22, 2019
Rwillsj

May be in your reality
it is a question of your reality
but then may be not
Only time will tell

May 23, 2019
This topic is related to:
"What are working temperatures of elements and compounds in the Universe?" https://www.svemi...elements i

"Why there are differences in structure of the objects in our system?" https://www.svemi...tructure etc.

Space has different temperatures that support the emission of elements and compounds. which have working temperatures (between the melting point and the point of coring of the element or compound) at these temperatures.

There is also an unavoidable "Why do Hydrogen and Helium Migrate from Some Planets and Smaller Objects? 3. The migration of hydrogen and helium " https://www.svemi...-Migrate

The processes are very simple and easy to understand.

May 23, 2019
Climate change on Titan

Titan receives just about 1% of the amount of sunlight Earth does
The average surface temperature is about 98.29 K, −179 °C
At this temperature water ice has an extremely low vapour pressure
the atmosphere is nearly free of water vapour
the methane in the atmosphere causes a substantial greenhouse effect
which keeps the surface of Titan at a much higher temperature
than what would otherwise be the thermal equilibrium

Haze in Titan's atmosphere
contributes to an anti-greenhouse effect by reflecting sunlight back into space
making its surface significantly colder than its upper atmosphere
This partially compensates for the greenhouse warming
keeps the surface somewhat cooler
than would otherwise be expected from the greenhouse effect alone

May 23, 2019
Climate change on Titan

The average surface temperature is about 98.29 K, −179 °C
At this temperature water ice has an extremely low vapour pressure
This atmosphere is nearly free of water vapour

So what is wduckss, preventing mars and our earthly moon having a 1.5 atm of their own?
Has it, wduckss
Anything perchance, wduckss
something to do with our Sun

Titans distance from our Sun, maybe?

May 23, 2019
Titan's moon's balmy −179 °C SUMMER haze

Titan appears to be a frigid world
its atmospheric constituents appear to be water ice
as to nitrogen
Under normal atmospheric pressure
Nitrogen exists as a liquid between -210°C and -196°C
if nitrogen is remotely energetic
at this miniscule gravity
this frigid −179 °C nitrogen
Will simply dissipate

May 23, 2019
Obviously you have not read any of the offered, otherwise you would not ask a question.
- Why Mars does not have the atmosphere like Titan or Earth? https://www.svemi...ke-Titan
- The Moon: "In its beginning, every (historic) object is a comet. When an object has made enough number of orbits near a star, it has lost the most of its volatile elements. The objects with a minimum of volatile elements are called asteroids or solid (rocky) objects. Those objects that have not been approaching closer to a star possess the elements' structure of the lower order, which is typical for a cold or colder space. These elements are directly related to the temperature (operating temperature) which exists in the space around and on such objects. Therefore, there are objects that are formed in a cold space without approaching a star and there are objects, the structures of which are formed in the interaction with a star

May 23, 2019
.."
https://www.svemi...hydrogen
- "With regards to the distance of an orbiting object from its main object, the level of space temperature around such an object (~ minimal temperatures) and the rotation of the object, it can be concluded that hydrogen and helium are found in the atmospheres of the objects with a significant quantity of mass (the planets with impressive atmospheres and Sun). The distance from a main object does not stop the migration of hydrogen and helium to the direction of a main object or the closest object with a sufficient quantity of mass. It is concluded from the atmosphere compositions of internal planets and the satellites of gas giants.."

May 23, 2019
Wduckss
Why Mars does not have the atmosphere like Titan Earth or the Moon
In its beginning
every object is a comet
When an object has made enough number of orbits near a star
it has lost the most of its volatile elements
The objects with a minimum of volatile elements are called asteroids
Those objects that have not been approaching closer to a star
possess the elements
structure of the lower order
which is typical for a cold or colder space
These elements are directly related to the temperature
which exists in the space around and on such objects
Therefore, there are objects that are formed in a cold space without approaching a star
and there are objects
the structures of which are formed in the interaction with a star

Comets consist of asteroid grains covered in ice
Asteroids grains are this solar systems dust
This dust is covered in ice which is these comets
Theses volatiles are this frozen nitrogen in comets forming titan's moon
Boiling of in the sun when forming this mars

May 23, 2019
Evolution Of The Cometary Atmosphere

Earthly Nitrogen and Oxygen is of Cometary origin
Theses volatiles are this frozen nitrogen in comets forming titan's moon
Boiling of in the sun when forming this mars

This frozen nitrogen in comets forming earth
is this atmospheric earthly atmosphere
protected by earth's magnetic field
Diverting this suns corrosive solarwind
We have wduckss intriguing theory

Wduckss's Evolution Of The Cometary Atmosphere

May 23, 2019
It will not go.
You did not understand anything or did not want to understand. In either case it is not worthwhile to continue the discussion. See you on another topic.
Best regards.

May 23, 2019
To have volatiles on comets - Where these volatiles boil of near the sun

Comets are this dust of space - where this dust is asteroid dust
volotile solid-liquid plus this dust is this frozen comet - where these volatiles boil of near this sun
planets are asteroids plus these comets are these volatile solids liquids evaporating as atmosphere
so as these volatiles boil of near this sun where does this earth get its atmosphere

Remember in how this thread started, wduckss
wduckss pointed gravity does not hold this atmosphere
it was pointed out gravity was not the reason mars and our moon lost their atmosphere
then it was pointed out these Cometary volatiles boiled of nearing this sun
which meant this earthly nitrogen which came from comets

But As it Boiled Of Near This Sun Means This Earth Should Have This Atmosphere This Mars Has

wduckss, this was the question what was holding this atmosphere down
Then these volatile evaporating comets of wduckss arrived boiling of near the sun

May 23, 2019
Wduckss
In either case it is not worthwhile to continue the discussion. See you on another topic.
Best regards

In either case, is that these volatiles or this gravity
Granville

May 23, 2019
Wduckss
In either case it is not worthwhile to continue the discussion. See you on another topic.
Best regards

In either case, is that these volatiles or this gravity
Granville
says he

All Matter in the Universe began as dust particles. As dust particles collided with each other, their rough and uneven shapes caused them to cling together, similar to 2 sides of Velcro that once stuck together - will not readily separate.
Once enough dust particles came together to form a lump of Matter, then Gravity attracted other dust particles as well as larger pieces that had already clumped together. More and more gravitated toward each other and the bigger clump through gravitational attraction and accretion.
This is how the planets began - from infinitesimal dust particles coming together - to larger chunks of Matter that coalesced into a body that was/is held together by Gravity. The Gravitational force is strongest at the surface, and lessens with altitude.
-contd-

May 24, 2019
-contd-
@granville
@wduckss
Volatiles are also dust particles that were made from the same sub-atomic elements. They coalesced together due to their 'native attraction' and similar or exactly same nature. IOW, two or more of the same sub-atomic elements IDENTIFY WITH EACH OTHER. There is also 'Native Attraction' in substances such as H2O.
For want of a better description, I call it Native Attraction which is also true of plant and animal species.
Now you may think that that is impossible - sub-atomic particles can't THINK, and that is true. And yet, two or more of the same kind gravitate toward each other and, in Nature, become one.
E Pluribus Unum. (From Many, One)
Thus, you have Copper mines, Gold mines, Silver mines, Lithium and Uranium.

That's the most wonderful thing about such Particles - they prefer their own kind. Because of that preference, they have made it much easier for humans (and others) to find them and mine them.

May 24, 2019
-contd-
@granville
@duckss

"To have volatiles on comets - Where these volatiles boil off near the sun

Comets are this dust of space - where this dust is asteroid dust
volotile solid-liquid plus this dust is this frozen comet - where these volatiles boil of near this sun
planets are asteroids plus these comets are these volatile solids liquids evaporating as atmosphere
so as these volatiles boil of near this sun where does this earth get its atmosphere"

The Earth is a V e r y S p e c i a l planet. Earth exists as it is for the past ~50 million Earth years for the purpose of producing sentient Life. And it has nothing to do with religion or politics.
Earth acquired most of its H2O from icy and dusty comets that traveled toward the Sun, while their tails quite often pointed towards Earth. As the comets' tails collided with Earth, the volatiles in those tails dropped into Earth's atmosphere and were further pulled in by Earth's Gravity. It would have rained a lot in that age

May 24, 2019
And yet, two or more of the same kind gravitate toward each other and, in Nature, become one.
Thus, you have Copper mines, Gold mines, Silver mines, Lithium and Uranium.

That's the most wonderful thing about such Particles - they prefer their own kind. Because of that preference, they have made it much easier for humans (and others) to find them and mine them.

Particles attract same kind of particles? So you are saying that electron attract electron and protons attract protons? I can assure you that is not how thinks work in nature.

Different kind of particles attract each other. For example in chemistry, more difference in electronegativity = stronger bonding

May 24, 2019
What is Holding this Atmosphere to these Planets

SEU:- Earth acquired most of its H2O from icy and dusty comets that travelled toward the Sun while their tails quite often pointed towards Earth

Wduckss:- The Moon: In its beginning every object is a comet, when an object has made enough number of orbits near a star, it has lost the most of its volatile element

Whereas it was pointed out the moons gravity is not sufficient strength to hold on its atmosphere

Wduckss said no, these volatiles boiled of these icy comets nearing the sun

where SEU said this volatile evaporating tail was caught by Earth's gravity

Both SEU and Wduckss are saying planetary atmosphere comes from volatile Comets

Whereas wduckss is of the view mars and our moon did not lose it atmosphere due to its gravity
while agreeing planetary atmosphere came from comets

How to complete this circle

Comets contain our Atmosphere captured by Planetary Moonian Gravity so why no Titan Moonly atmosphere on Mars?

May 24, 2019
How to complete this circle

Whereas it was also pointed out; this lack of Martian Magnetic Field allowed this solarwind to blast away this atmosphere
But still wduckss said No
Quite a quandary is it not, no, no at every to every turn at this lack of Martian atmosphere, while titans moon retains its atmosphere

May 24, 2019
And yet, two or more of the same kind gravitate toward each other and, in Nature, become one.
Thus, you have Copper mines, Gold mines, Silver mines, Lithium and Uranium.

That's the most wonderful thing about such Particles - they prefer their own kind. Because of that preference, they have made it much easier for humans (and others) to find them and mine them.

Particles attract same kind of particles? So you are saying that electron attract electron and protons attract protons? I can assure you that is not how thinks work in nature.

Different kind of particles attract each other. For example in chemistry, more difference in electronegativity = stronger bonding
says Cortezz

As I said here earlier:
"All Matter in the Universe began as dust particles. As dust particles collided with each other, their rough and uneven shapes caused them to cling together, similar to 2 sides of Velcro that once stuck together - will not readily separate."


May 24, 2019
-contd-
@Cordezz

The particles that make up the atoms of Gold, or Silver or Platinum are attracted to each other if within the same group. It is a form of Natural Selection or Preference. You will not find atoms of Gold being attracted to atoms of Carbon at the atomic level.

May 24, 2019
These Inconsistent Thoughtly Thoughts

SEU, GOLD like other elements forms atomic gold
Where gold builds atomically atom by atom a troy ounce of pure gold
So there is an attraction between atoms of the same element

Whereas the dust on the tops of cupboards incremental increase in layers
As dust is a particle and unlike
Cortezz> Particles attract same kind of particles? So you are saying that electron attract electron and protons attract protons? I can assure you that is not how thinks work in nature

Particles do attract as proof of these dust particles accumulating in layers on the tops of cupboards
Because, SEU
This dust you wipe a side with your hand
Believe it or not
Is
This exact same dust these comets are building up layers of ice in this vacuous vacuum of this Kuiper belt

May 24, 2019
These

SEU, GOLD like other elements forms atomic gold
Where gold builds atomically atom by atom a troy ounce of pure gold
So there is an attraction between atoms of the same element

Whereas the dust on the tops of cupboards incremental increase in layers
As dust is a particle and unlike
Cortezz> Particles attract same kind of particles? So you are saying that electron attract electron and protons attract protons? I can assure you that is not how thinks work in nature

Particles do attract as proof of these dust particles accumulating in layers on the tops of cupboards
Because, SEU
This dust you wipe a side with your hand
Believe it or not
Is
This exact same dust these comets are building up layers of ice in this vacuous vacuum of this Kuiper belt
says granville

Even at the sub-atomic level of protons, electrons, neutrons, quarks, etc. depending on the factors of which atoms are created, each electron, etc will find its place.
-contd-

May 24, 2019
-contd-
@granville

Yes, those scrumptious electrons and potent protons are attracted to their opposite mates (electron to proton), and in that way their 'offspring' (up/down/left/right subatomic particles) determine which atoms will be transformed into the atoms making up each element, such as Gold or Silver, etc. Somehow, each elemental atom manages to find its way to join with its fellow elements - Gold to Gold - Carbon to Carbon - Silver to Silver, etc.
Since we KNOW that they aren't making "choices" per se, it has to come down to the level of ATTRACTION that gets these elements all atwirl like girls at a high school Prom Night.
WHO does the choosing at the particle level and WHY the choice is made? I don't believe even the scientists at the LHC have considered the query that smacks of sentience somehow.

May 24, 2019
All alone in this frozen vacuum

A lonely proton in this infinite vacuous vacuum meets a lonely scrumptious electron
where they elope and happily traipse in to the vacuum together
where they meet other eloped couples
where by Bremsstrahlung radiation this electron creates gamma radiation in this vacuum transforming lonely protons into neutrons adding to this protons atomic number allowing this eloped couple in this frozen vacuum to form helium in this 14.7 minute this neutron has on earth
as this is SEU, an answer to our reliance on these fossil fuels, the proton and its scrumptious electron create unlimited energy in this frozen vacuum by simply this proton spirals its electron round its magnetic field creating Bremsstrahlung radiation, gamma radiation
Unlimited energy without a nuclear explosion

May 25, 2019
hmm, here is sillyegghead's split personalities exposed.
Where his/her/its comments to this article disagree with his/her/its comments to other articles.

Here, the sillyegghead is advocating for dust particles magically appearing out of nowhere, to become this Universe.
Without any explanation of how.

Cthonic titans of Cosmic Dust Bunnies.
Perfectly reasonable.

Hey, wait! seu is plagiarizing my jokes...

While in previous comments, the sillyegghead preaches that this Universe is the birthed spawn of a creator deity, based on missedtranslated holey babble.

Okay, that bit of lunacy comports with my Theory of Stupid Design by bungling incompetent drunken godlings.

& in the end? All sillyegghead has accomplished?
Is to prove my conjecture, that the woomongering looneytick cultists are incapable of original, inventive. creative work.

What pathos... What humbug...

May 25, 2019
All alone in this frozen vacuum

A lonely proton in this infinite vacuous vacuum meets a lonely scrumptious electron
where they elope and happily traipse in to the vacuum together
where they meet other eloped couples
where by Bremsstrahlung radiation this electron creates gamma radiation in this vacuum transforming lonely protons into neutrons adding to this protons atomic number allowing this eloped couple in this frozen vacuum to form helium in this 14.7 minute this neutron has on earth
as this is SEU, an answer to our reliance on these fossil fuels, the proton and its scrumptious electron create unlimited energy in this frozen vacuum by simply this proton spirals its electron round its magnetic field creating Bremsstrahlung radiation, gamma radiation
Unlimited energy without a nuclear explosion
says granville

Precisely. It is not complicated at all, granville. It is actually a "thought projection" to counter that old projectability of 14.7 seconds (Neutron) lifetime

May 25, 2019
^^^^Christ, the combined stupid of two of the stupidest people on here, it hurts!

May 25, 2019
^^^^Christ, the combined stupid of two of the stupidest people on here, it hurts!
says Castrovagina

Hey brainiac. The topic for discussion is "Water formation on the moon". The above blubbering from your dense brain is the first and ONLY comment you have made in this particular phorum. Why go through all that trouble of condemning folks for discussing the topic with each other in a normal and polite way while you sit on your fat arse with nothing constructive to say, except for the chance to say absolutely nothing - and certainly nothing of scientific value.
You are beginning to type your silly nonsense like rrwillsj, who hasn't ever said anything of meaningful or decipherable value through its years here in physorg. Go skedaddle back to your hole in the wall.

May 25, 2019
^^^^And none of the crap you or the idiot Granville have written has anything to do with water creation on the Moon. None of it is even comprehensible.

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