Sex differences in personality traits in Asian elephants

March 11, 2019, University of Turku
Male and female Asian elephants differ in their personality. Credit: John Jackson

Scientists from the University of Turku, Finland, have found that male and female Asian elephants differ in their personality. Previous work on a timber elephant population from Myanmar has shown that Asian elephants have three personality factors: Attentiveness, Sociability and Aggressiveness. The new study demonstrates that male elephants score higher on the Aggressiveness trait than females, whereas female elephants score higher on the Sociability trait than males.

Personality in humans has been a well-known concept for long, but during the last two decades science has shown us that also other animals express personalities, for example, in sociability. Differences in personality between the sexes is also a topic in behavioural biology, but besides primates, little is known about personality differences between sexes in long-lived highly social mammals, as studies tend to focus on shorter lived species.

The researchers of the University of Turku studied a semi-captive population of timber elephants in Myanmar. Even though a previous study showed that male and female elephants do not differ in their personality structure, the new study offers evidence that there are still differences in how strongly each personality is expressed in males and females.

"We found that males scored higher on the aggressiveness personality trait compared to females. Males also tended to be rated as less sociable than females, scoring lower on the Sociability personality trait than females. We found no sex difference in the Attentiveness personality trait or in variances of any of the personality traits examined," says Postdoctoral Researcher and the lead author of the study Martin Seltmann from the Department of Biology at the University of Turku.

The researchers used questionnaires to find out about the elephants' personalities. The questions were directed to mahouts, or elephant head riders, and they scored how often the elephant displayed each of the 28 different behaviours on a 4-point scale. The surveys were conducted in Myanmar in 2014–2017 on over 250 timber elephants living in their natural habitat.

"The elephants work in the timber industry, pulling logs from one place to another. This is a very unique research environment and population, enabling us to study several hundreds of elephants," says Dr. Seltmann.

An Asian elephant and its mahout working in Myanmar's timber industry. Credit: Martin Seltmann
Sex-specific differences in personality and their link to species life-history

Female Asian elephants live in small, strongly bonded family units and group cohesion is of high importance. Exhibiting consistent and predictable personalities could further improve the resolution of a conflict within the group, with different personalities adopting different social roles.

"Higher female agreeableness seems to be a common pattern in long-lived, highly social mammals. These sex-specific differences in elephant Sociability could be explained by the different social lives of the sexes," says researcher Mirkka Lahdenperä who participated in the study.

Higher aggressiveness in male elephants might be explained by their need to assess each other's dominance status by less aggressive sparring bouts or by more aggressive interactions during musth. Higher aggression is important in maximising reproductive success in male as older, larger and more aggressive males are more successful in mate guarding than the less aggressive .

"Attentiveness includes behaviours that are generally associated with the response of the elephant towards its mahout, like attentiveness, obedience, and vigilance. Since both sexes work and live under similar conditions and similar work regulations apply to them, it is not surprising that those behaviours are not significantly influenced by sex," explains Dr. Seltmann.

The study contributes to the growing literature on the existence of sex differences in animal personality. Males and females of the same species can experience different selection pressures and follow different life-history strategies, which in turn can be reflected by sex-specific personality differences.

"Personality studies sometimes focus only on male or female individuals of a species, even though behaviour and life-history can differ substantially between the sexes, leading to different selection pressures on male and female ," concludes Dr. Seltmann.

Explore further: Asian elephants have different personality traits just like humans

More information: Martin W. Seltmann et al. Males have more aggressive and less sociable personalities than females in semi-captive Asian elephants, Scientific Reports (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-39915-7

Related Stories

When it comes to love—personality matters: research

November 20, 2018

Men with a greater range of personality traits, especially those deemed extraverted, emotionally stable, agreeable or conscientious, have sex more often and produce more children, according to a new QUT study.

Good dog? Bad dog? Their personalities can change

February 22, 2019

When dog-parents spend extra time scratching their dogs' bellies, take their dogs out for long walks and games of fetch, or even when they feel constant frustration over their dogs' naughty chewing habits, they are gradually ...

Capturing elephants from the wild shortens their lives

August 7, 2018

Humans have been capturing wild Asian elephants for more than 3,000 years, and this continues today despite the fact that the populations are declining. An international team of researchers has now analysed records of timber ...

Recommended for you

EPA adviser is promoting harmful ideas, scientists say

March 22, 2019

The Trump administration's reliance on industry-funded environmental specialists is again coming under fire, this time by researchers who say that Louis Anthony "Tony" Cox Jr., who leads a key Environmental Protection Agency ...

Coffee-based colloids for direct solar absorption

March 22, 2019

Solar energy is one of the most promising resources to help reduce fossil fuel consumption and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions to power a sustainable future. Devices presently in use to convert solar energy into thermal ...

1 comment

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

Iochroma
not rated yet Mar 12, 2019
So in other words: Western scientists publish something that Eastern mahouts have known for centuries.

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.