Juno mission captures images of volcanic plumes on Jupiter's moon Io

Juno mission captures images of volcanic plumes on Jupiter’s moon Io
JunoCam acquired three images of Io prior to when it entered eclipse, all showing a volcanic plume illuminated beyond the terminator. The image shown here, reconstructed from red, blue and green filter images, was acquired at 12:20 (UTC) on Dec. 21, 2018. The Juno spacecraft was approximately 300,000 km from Io. Credit: NASA/SwRI/MSSS

A team of space scientists has captured new images of a volcanic plume on Jupiter's moon Io during the Juno mission's 17th flyby of the gas giant. On Dec. 21, during winter solstice, four of Juno's cameras captured images of the Jovian moon Io, the most volcanic body in our solar system. JunoCam, the Stellar Reference Unit (SRU), the Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper (JIRAM) and the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVS) observed Io for over an hour, providing a glimpse of the moon's polar regions as well as evidence of an active eruption.

"We knew we were breaking new ground with a multi-spectral campaign to view Io's polar region, but no one expected we would get so lucky as to see an active volcanic plume shooting material off the moon's surface," said Scott Bolton, principal investigator of the Juno mission and an associate vice president of Southwest Research Institute's Space Science and Engineering Division. "This is quite a New Year's present showing us that Juno has the ability to clearly see plumes."

JunoCam acquired the first images on Dec. 21 at 12:00, 12:15 and 12:20 coordinated universal time (UTC) before Io entered Jupiter's shadow. The Images show the moon half-illuminated with a bright spot seen just beyond the terminator, the day-night boundary.

"The ground is already in shadow, but the height of the plume allows it to reflect sunlight, much like the way mountaintops or clouds on the Earth continue to be lit after the sun has set," explained Candice Hansen-Koharcheck, the JunoCam lead from the Planetary Science Institute.

At 12:40 UTC, after Io had passed into the darkness of total eclipse behind Jupiter, sunlight reflecting off nearby moon Europa helped to illuminate Io and its plume. SRU images released by SwRI depict Io softly illuminated by moonlight from Europa. The brightest feature on Io in the image is thought to be a penetrating radiation signature, a reminder of this satellite's role in feeding Jupiter's radiation belts, while other features show the glow of activity from several volcanoes. "As a low-light camera designed to track the stars, the SRU can only observe Io under very dimly lit conditions. Dec. 21 gave us a unique opportunity to observe Io's volcanic activity with the SRU using only Europa's moonlight as our lightbulb," said Heidi Becker, lead of Juno's Radiation Monitoring Investigation, at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Juno mission captures images of volcanic plumes on Jupiter’s moon Io
Juno’s Radiation Monitoring Investigation collected this image of Jupiter’s moon Io with Juno’s Stellar Reference Unit (SRU) star camera shortly after Io was eclipsed by Jupiter at 12:40:29 (UTC) Dec. 21, 2018. Io is softly illuminated by moonlight from another of Jupiter’s moons, Europa. The brightest feature on Io is suspected to be a penetrating radiation signature. The glow of activity from several of Io’s volcanos is seen, including a plume circled in the image. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI

Sensing heat at long wavelengths, the JIRAM instrument detects hotspots in the daylight and at night.

"Though Jupiter's moons are not JIRAM's primary objectives, every time we pass close enough to one of them, we take advantage of the opportunity for an observation," said Alberto Adriani, a researcher at Italy's National Institute of Astrophysics. "The instrument is sensitive to infrared wavelengths, which are perfect to study the volcanism of Io. This is one of the best images of Io that JIRAM has been able to collect so far."

The latest images can lead to new insights into the gas giant's interactions with its five moons, causing phenomena such as Io's volcanic activity or freezing of the moon's atmosphere during eclipse, added Bolton. JIRAM recently documented Io's volcanic activity before and after eclipse. Io's volcanoes were discovered by NASA's Voyager spacecraft in 1979. Io's gravitational interaction with Jupiter drives the moon's volcanoes, which emit umbrella-like plumes of SO2 gas and produce extensive basaltic lava fields.

Juno mission captures images of volcanic plumes on Jupiter’s moon Io
The Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper (JIRAM) image was acquired at 12:30 (UTC) on Dec. 21, 2018. The instrument reveals very high temperatures at the location of a volcanic eruption on Io. This observation was taken during the same fully eclipsed period of images from the JunoCam and Stellar Reference Unit. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/INAF

The recent Io images were captured at the halfway point of the mission, which is scheduled to complete a map of Jupiter in July 2021. Launched in 2011, Juno arrived at Jupiter in 2016. The spacecraft orbits Jupiter every 53 days, studying its auroras, atmosphere and magnetosphere.

The solar-powered Juno features eight scientific instruments designed to study Jupiter's interior structure, atmosphere and magnetosphere. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the Juno mission for Bolton. Juno is part of the New Frontiers Program, which is managed at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Lockheed Martin Space built the spacecraft, and SwRI provided two Juno instruments to study the massive Jovian aurora.

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NASA Juno data indicate another possible volcano on Jupiter moon Io

Citation: Juno mission captures images of volcanic plumes on Jupiter's moon Io (2019, January 2) retrieved 14 October 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-01-juno-mission-captures-images-volcanic.html
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Jan 02, 2019
Maybe it's just the canals on Mars.

Jan 02, 2019
You can see a better photo of IO's volcano in this list here and it is not like canals on Mars.

Active Volcanoes of Our Solar System
Activity Occurs on Earth and on the Moons of a Few Planets
Article by: Hobart M. King, Ph.D., RPG

Jan 02, 2019
Amusingly they still claim these are volcanoes as we have on Earth even after solid data that clearly suggests otherwise. But alas, admitting the truth could cause their house of cards to tumble into oblivion.

Jan 02, 2019
extensive basaltic lava fields."
Relative to most common igneous rocks, basalt compositions are rich in MgO and CaO and low in SiO2 and the alkali oxides, i.e., Na2O + K2O, consistent with the TAS classification.
Basalt generally has a composition of 45–55 wt% SiO2, 2–6 wt% total alkalis, 0.5–2.0 wt% TiO2, 5–14 wt% FeO and 14 wt% or more Al2O3. Contents of CaO are commonly near 10 wt%, those of MgO commonly in the range 5 to 12 wt%. https://en.wikipe...hemistry
Atmosfere Composition by volume, volume 90% sulfur dioxide
Io has an extremely thin atmosphere consisting mainly of sulfur dioxide (SO
2), with minor constituents including sulfur monoxide (SO), sodium chloride (NaCl), and atomic sulfur and oxygen.

Jan 02, 2019
Volcanos on Io and volcanoes on Earth. Surely they are different, one from the other - yet also they are similar. Compare and contrast, please. Don't whinge.

Jan 02, 2019
m_d your concern is for two different matters.

First & important, is that many scientists use common words as quick mnemonic when explaining their research. What they conceive of as the meaning of a volcano on Io is very different from the meaning when they are defining a volcano on Earth.

You & I, the Public. Have to consider the context of each & every scientist, in each & every report. Especially when the writers & editors of these pop-science articles have very limited knowledge of these subjects.

No? It's not fair for the scientists to make you work for understanding?

Well, consider your own profession, I'll betcha there's a slew of words you have daily contact with that are exclusive in meaning to your job.

& there are thousands of professions, each developing their own version of the English language.

Jan 02, 2019
m_d, the second & least important matter is that there is no reason to feel sorry for the woobots.
These are just poorly written code spreading mythinformation while merchandising chicanery & fraud across the internet.

If you made the mistake of trying to take such as cant seriously? You will quickly find yourself enmeshed in a web of lies & deceits.

You've heard of Artificial Intelligence. Many, attempting to deal with AI programs, have taken to calling those Artificial Stupids.
If you are not certain whether you are talking to a Human or an AP/AS? Apply the Turing Test.

These woobots keep repeating the same nonsense, over & again, endlessly. You'll detect no creativity or wit or empathy or inventiveness to those comments.

If you are a Bunco Squad cop tracking though the woogoo revelations? You will discover shameless plagiarizing & outright fraud based on stolen work. Warped to each woocult's peculiar brand of lunacy.

Jan 03, 2019
Compare and contrast, please.

Earth volcanoes don't move 70 miles in 20yrs, on Io they do.
Ioian "volcanoes" are much hotter than Earthly volcanoes,.
The plumes are a tell tales sign of the plasma gun effect.
The volcanoes are in the wrong places if it is supposed to be due to tidal heating, as a matter of fact it is irreconcilable.
I could go on but I am tired.

Jan 03, 2019
@ m.d.
Volcanos on Io and volcanoes on Earth are differen. On Earth are volcanoes, on Io etc are the cold outbreak of matter.

Temperature °K
Ganimed…..70…………110……….152 https://www.svemi...html#250
Volcanic ash consists of fragments of pulverized rock, minerals and volcanic glass, created during volcanic eruptions and measuring less than 2 mm (0.079 inches) in diameter..
While some 55 ionic species have been reported in fresh ash leachates[9] the most abundant species usually found are the cations Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ and the anions Cl−, F− and SO42−. Molar ratios between ions present in leachates suggest that in many cases these elements are present as simple salts such as NaCl and CaSO4 https://en.wikipe...Chemical

Jan 03, 2019

I could go on but I am tired........

And talking crap, as usual.

Jan 07, 2019
Since the solar system is less than 10,000 years old.. seeing volcanic activity on
such a small moon is not unusual..as on the earth.

Jan 07, 2019
@blazmotronic, you're saying you worship a god of lies?

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