Data from Kilauea suggests the eruption was unprecedented

December 14, 2018 by Bob Yirka, Phys.org report
Credit: CC0 Public Domain

A very large team of researchers from multiple institutions in the U.S. has concluded that the Kilauea volcanic eruption that occurred over this past summer represented an unprecedented volcanic event. In their paper published in the journal Science, the researchers describe the sequence of events that transpired and what set them apart from other volcanic eruptions.

Kilauea, a volcano on Hawaii's big island underwent a long, drawn-out over this past summer. It made headlines due to the spread of lava that destroyed many homes and changed some of the island's landscape. And it is now making news again as data from the eruption reveals that it erupted in ways that have not been seen before.

Kilauea is the most in the world, and because of that, scientists have installed many sensors in and around the area in hopes of learning more about how it and other volcanoes work. Thus, the volcano's eruption in May provided massive amounts of data, offering an unprecedented view of the eruption.

The researchers discovered that the caldera did not collapse in a way that was expected. First, it deflated by approximately 500 meters. Second, it happened incrementally—62 times in all. They were also surprised to find that groundwater did not play much of a role in the explosions that resulted as the caldera collapsed—instead, they were caused by piston-type pressure resulting from each deflation.

The researchers were also surprised to find that life returned to parts of the sea impacted by the sudden introduction of molten lava in just 100 days—oxidizing microbes showed up to take advantage of the newly deposited flows. They also found evidence of hydrothermal activity in the same areas. Both were believed to take longer to get their start after an eruption.

The volcano has gone quiet for now, but the researchers will continue to study monitors, particularly those posted along Kilauea's Lower East Rift Zone, looking for evidence of new activity. They will also be keeping a close eye on Mauna Loa—the other major on Hawaii's big island. It has a history of activity when Kilauea goes quiet.

Explore further: National park in Hawaii reopens after monthslong eruption

More information: C. A. Neal et al. The 2018 rift eruption and summit collapse of Kīlauea Volcano, Science (2018). DOI: 10.1126/science.aav7046

Related Stories

National park in Hawaii reopens after monthslong eruption

September 23, 2018

A national park in Hawaii has reopened after being closed for more than four months because of Kilauea volcano's latest eruption, which caused widespread damage to park infrastructure and dramatically changed its landscape.

NASA Satellite detects Kilauea fissures

May 8, 2018

The eruption of Kilauea Volcano on the island of Hawaii triggered a number of gas- and lava-oozing fissures in the East Riff Zone of the volcano. The fissures and high levels of sulfur dioxide gas prompted evacuations in ...

Image: Hawaii lava flow

June 11, 2018

Copernicus Sentinel-2 images from 23 May and 7 June 2018 show changes in lava flow from the Kilauea volcano on Hawaii's Big Island. It is estimated that around 600 homes have been destroyed in one of the volcano's most destructive ...

Recommended for you

Afromontane forests and climate change

January 17, 2019

In the world of paleoecology, little has been known about the historical record of ecosystems in the West African highlands, especially with regard to glacial cycles amidst a shifting climate and their effects on species ...

1 comment

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

Anonym590659
not rated yet Dec 17, 2018
An unprecedented eruption? Where do the study authors say that? I can't find it.

Did you mean to say it was an anomalous eruption?
:)

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.