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Water in Hawaii volcano could trigger explosive eruptions

For the first time in recorded history, a pond of water has been discovered inside the summit crater of Hawaii's Kilauea volcano, a development that could signal a shift to a more explosive phase of future eruptions.

How to recognize where a volcano will erupt

On television, the eruption of volcano shoots magma right out of the top. However, it is not so uncommon that magma erupts from the volcano's flank rather than its summit. After leaving the underground magma chamber, the ...

Artificial intelligence to monitor volcanoes

More than half of the world's active volcanoes are not monitored instrumentally. Hence, even very serious eruptions occur with no warning for nearby populations of the upcoming disaster. As a first and early step toward a ...

Super volcanic eruptions interrupt ozone recovery

Since the Antarctic ozone hole was detected in 1985, depletion of the ozone layer—the "big umbrella" that protects all life on Earth—has raised considerable concern. The efforts of international communities led to the ...

Research yields new clues to the origin of Tamu Massif

The discovery of Tamu Massif, a gigantic volcano located about 1,000 miles east of Japan, made big news in 2013 when researchers reported it was the largest single volcano documented on earth, roughly the size of New Mexico.

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Volcano

A volcano is an opening, or rupture, in a planet's surface or crust, which allows hot, molten rock, ash, and gases to escape from below the surface. Volcanic activity involving the extrusion of rock tends to form mountains or features like mountains over a period of time. The word volcano is derived from the name of Vulcano island off Sicily. In turn, it was named after Vulcan, the Roman god of fire.

Volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging. A mid-oceanic ridge, for example the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has examples of volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates pulling apart; the Pacific Ring of Fire has examples of volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates coming together. By contrast, volcanoes are usually not created where two tectonic plates slide past one another. Volcanoes can also form where there is stretching and thinning of the Earth's crust (called "non-hotspot intraplate volcanism"), such as in the African Rift Valley, the Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field and the Rio Grande Rift in North America and the European Rhine Graben with its Eifel volcanoes.

Volcanoes can be caused by mantle plumes. These so-called hotspots, for example at Hawaii, can occur far from plate boundaries. Hotspot volcanoes are also found elsewhere in the solar system, especially on rocky planets and moons.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA