Study witnesses first moments of star dying in finest detail

November 30, 2018, Australian National University
Some theoretical models propose that an exploding white dwarf – a star that has exhausted its nuclear fuel – hits a neighbouring star to cause a supernova, which appears to be the cause of SN 2018oh. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

An international research team including The Australian National University (ANU) has used the Kepler space telescope in coordination with ground-based telescopes to witness the first moments of a star dying in unprecedented detail.

The astronomers witnessed the star dying a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away, as part of a project that aims to solve the mystery of how stars explode.

Dr. Brad Tucker, one of the lead researchers of the survey, said about 170 million years later on 4 February 2018 the array of high-powered telescopes detected the light emanating from the , otherwise known as a called SN 2018oh.

"Kepler—in its final days before running out of fuel and being retired—observed the minute changes in brightness of the star's explosion from its very beginnings, while the ground-based telescopes detected changes in colour and the atomic make-up of this dying star," said Dr. Tucker from the ANU Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics.

"With the combined data from these telescopes, astronomers achieved what they had hoped for—an unprecedented observation of the onset of a star's death."

SN 2018oh is an example of a Type Ia supernova—the kind that astronomers use to measure the expansion of the Universe and probe the nature of dark energy.

"Prior to Kepler, it was nearly impossible to study the early stages of a star explosion," Dr. Tucker said.

The supernova—known as SN 2018oh—is located in a spiral galaxy called UGC 4780 in the constellation Cancer at a distance of more than 170 million light years. Credit: NASA

A typical Type Ia supernova brightens over the course of three weeks before gradually fading away, but this supernova brightened rapidly a few days after the initial explosion—about three times faster than a typical supernova at this time period.

The Dark Energy Camera at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile and the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System at Haleakala Observatory in Hawaii revealed this supernova gleaming blue during this intense period of intensity, an indication of extremely —billions of degrees hot.

Dr. Tucker said some propose that an exploding white dwarf—a star that has exhausted its nuclear fuel—hits a neighbouring star to cause a supernova, which appears to be the cause of SN 2018oh.

"It's possible in the case of SN 2018oh that the shock wave from the exploding white dwarf ran into the companion star, creating an extremely hot and bright halo that accounts for the added brightness and heat we observed," Dr. Tucker said.

"With this latest result, we now know a range of star systems cause these important explosions—those used by ANU Vice-Chancellor and astronomer Brian Schmidt to show the Universe was growing at an accelerating rate," he said.

"The now retired Kepler Space changed our view of the Universe—showing just how common planets around other stars are. It has also now revolutionised what we know about how end their lives in brilliant explosions."

Dr. Tucker said finding out the frequency and distribution of this kind of Type Ia supernova would help to refine the models used in cosmology to estimate the rate of expansion of the Universe.

Three papers by 130 scientists on this study will be published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters and the Astrophysical Journal.

Explore further: Newly discovered supernova may rewrite exploding star origin theories

More information: "No Stripped Companion Material in the Nebular Spectrum of the "Two-Component" Type Ia Supernova ASASSN-18bt," M. A. Tucker, B. J. Shappee & J. P. Wisniewski, 2018 Nov. 30, to appear in the Astrophysical Journal Letters arxiv.org/abs/1811.09635

"K2 Observations of SN 2018oh Reveal a Two-Component Rising Light Curve for a Type Ia Supernova," G. Dimitriadis et al., 2018 Nov. 30, to appear in the Astrophysical Journal Letters arxiv.org/abs/1811.10061

"Photometric and Spectroscopic Properties of Type Ia Supernova 2018oh with Early Excess Emission from the Kepler 2 Observations," W. Li et al., 2018 Nov. 30, to appear in the Astrophysical Journal arxiv.org/abs/1811.10056

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Nik_2213
5 / 5 (9) Nov 30, 2018
Nimble work to catch such so early and so well !!
rrwillsj
2 / 5 (4) Nov 30, 2018
What I opinionate is important about these observations & evaluations?

Is that the evidence is being collected to show that there is a wide-spectrum of possible causes for Supernovae.

That these spectacular events will stubbornly refuse to fit into the nice, neat categories so beloved of the OCD crowd.
Steelwolf
4.2 / 5 (5) Nov 30, 2018
"It was going to be a very hot day in the Aldeberan Colonies as far as their Almanac stated, but even the farmers were caught off guard..."

from The Untold Tales of Star Wars, the Tragedies.
RealityCheck
2.5 / 5 (11) Nov 30, 2018
From the article:
"With this latest result, we now know a range of star systems cause these important explosions—.........Dr. Tucker said finding out the frequency and distribution of this kind of Type Ia supernova would help to refine the models used in cosmology to estimate the rate of expansion of the Universe.
Even more confirmation of what I have been long pointing out to RNP, EMP-9 etc, regarding the great variation of local ('there') masses, configurational and motional states etc which makes previous simplistic "standard candle" assumptions/interpretations of SN data unreliable/misleading; thus also making the 'Cosmic Distance Ladder' construct simplistic and misleading.

Another case at...

https://phys.org/...ies.html
...there may be two distinct populations of Type Ia supernovae—...."We are finding that supernovae explosions are more complicated than we previously thought..."
...further confirms me correct. :)
Surveillance_Egg_Unit
1.7 / 5 (6) Nov 30, 2018
....which also goes to show that nothing is as simple and easy as we would like it to be. But all of these 'occurrences' in the cosmos are as Nature intended - for whatever it's worth.
We can stop to observe and record what has, and is, happening, while at the same time thinking, please - NIMBY (not in my back yard).
It has been found out that Earth's atmosphere is leaking Oxygen into LEO and that in about a billion years, all Oxygen breathers will have asphyxiated, but methane and CO2 breathers will still be around to evolve - into what? But the big concern is a supernova that is more than 170 million light years away. Who can say which one is of the utmost immediate concern for humanity and animals?
For one thing, it is an unknown as to the amount of Oxygen that is being lost and how quickly it is leaving our atmosphere. It is not known as yet if it is a steady leak, or if it is intermittent, stops and starts up again and if the 'hole' could be plugged.
:)
Da Schneib
4 / 5 (8) Nov 30, 2018
Meanwhile, back on Earth, we have these things called "forests" and "algae" which generate oxygen. Been doing it for a billion years. Well, perhaps not so long for the trees, but if you wanna know, go look up "oxygen catastrophe" on Wikipedia.

Maybe YEC troll @SEU forgot.

Getting back to the article at hand, this observation is unique; we've never seen a star actually go supernova before. There may be some apple carts upset over this.
Da Schneib
4.6 / 5 (9) Dec 01, 2018
Oh, and while we're back on the subject of this article, all three references are preprints that are open access on arXiv. It's rather unusual to see three papers on a single event, which should serve to show how important this may be.
RNP
4.3 / 5 (11) Dec 01, 2018
@RealityCheck
which makes previous simplistic "standard candle" assumptions/interpretations of SN data unreliable/misleading.........................

...further confirms me correct. :)


Yet more nauseating self-aggrandizement. And you wonder why people give you such short shrift?
As I pointed out in the other post where you boasted about this insight of yours.... it has been a hot topic of research for years and that is why techniques have been developed using multi-wavelength data to make them "standardizable" (see https://arxiv.org...3596.pdf ).
granville583762
5 / 5 (1) Dec 01, 2018
This ever increasing supply of hydrogen

As these types of supernova
explosively go nova
obliterating their star
to an expanding shell
seeding their universe
with the vital
heavy elements of life
an interesting point is raised
as this is the last stage of these galactic stars
as starry stars require hydrogen
as the bulk of their starry fuel
these stars
take 10million yrs to form
live for 10billion yrs
as the universe is 13billion yrs
these stars are way past their life span
yet there is as many stars today
as there was 13billion years ago
where the starry hydrogen
is rapidly converting to heavy elements
as darkmatter has the exact same conversion problem
darkmatter also converts dark hydrogen to dark heavy elements
so darkmatter only adds a smokescreen
as where when hydrogen is converted to heavy elements
where is this hydrogen
in this universe of ours
acquiring from a diminishing supply of hydrogen
To fuel these ever increasing stars!
RealityCheck
2.3 / 5 (9) Dec 01, 2018
@RNP.
which makes previous simplistic "standard candle" assumptions/interpretations of SN data unreliable/misleading......
...further confirms me correct. :)
Yet more nauseating self-aggrandizement. And you wonder why people give you such short shrift?
As I pointed out in the other post where you boasted about this insight of yours.... it has been a hot topic of research for years and that is why techniques have been developed using multi-wavelength data to make them "standardizable" (see https://arxiv.org...3596.pdf ).
Go that other thread and read my responses to your lame downplay-and-deny attempts just because I was correct and you wrong to dismiss and insult whenever I tried (for years) to point these things out to you, IMP-9 etc.

You (don't) want it both ways, RNP. You don't want me point out correct things out to you/gang; and you don't want me draw your attention to mainstream confirming me correct. So Downplay; Deny; Mischaracterize. Lame. :)
granville583762
3 / 5 (2) Dec 01, 2018
As are doom is nigh
SEU> It has been found out that Earth's atmosphere is leaking Oxygen into LEO and that in about a billion years, all Oxygen breathers will have asphyxiated, but methane and CO2 breathers will still be around to evolve - into what?

SEU
.......When this doom laden supernova nigh on 170million Lrs distance
which will with most certainty
oblitterate all earthly life
as we speak of these calamities
as the earths life giving oxygen leaks into space
these calamatous earthilings
down here on earth
are busily
sequestering this vital atmosphere
without which life on earth will cease
as while these earthlings
breath there last vital molecules of atmosphere
are busily sequestering this dangerous atmospheric calamity
into earthly rocks
so deep
no earthling
will ever breath again
so in years to come
when this star goes nova
We debate a fate worse than extinction its self
granville583762
3 / 5 (2) Dec 01, 2018
The art of diplomacy
RealityCheck> Go that other thread, responses to your lame downplay-and-deny attempts, just because I was correct, dismiss and insult, IMP-9 etc, things out to you/gang, mainstream confirming me correct, Downplay, Deny, Mischaracterize, Lame. :)

Or you could have answered my starry diminishing galactica hydrogen question, RealityCheck.
There by avoiding answering your textural texturing
and with one stone
not perpetuating bad thoughtly thoughts of your fellow commentators RealityCheck
There by implementing the art of diplomacy
RealityCheck
1.9 / 5 (9) Dec 01, 2018
@granville583762.

RealityCheck> Go that other thread, responses to your lame downplay-and-deny attempts, just because I was correct,...
answered my starry diminishing galactica hydrogen question,
If you can rephrase your 'question' more straightforwardly and clearly then I might be able to better discern the thrust of what you want answered, mate.
the art of diplomacy
Tried that with individual trolls and troll gangs countless times since 2005. Never worked because they take that as a sign of weakness and just troll more. The only thing that worked was confronting them, exposing them, and demonstrating their modus operandi to the intelligent readers. I even offered the Olive Branch of Peace on more than one occasion; with no reciprocation from the insensible and incorrigible trolls. The only thing that works is to defend against them and expose their trolling nastiness. :)
granville583762
2.3 / 5 (3) Dec 01, 2018
RealityCheck
......................There are techniques at work here
subtleties that the the like of which only intellects such as antialias_physorg understand
as even as you do not see AP, he is always in mind
the original trolls of old as you have found are not the trolls of old
as was immediately apparent on my apparition
these trollians are trollian trolls as a diversionary tactic
to the real ugly troll's under their bridges
As our comments provide their food

As to the question
as stars go supernova
converting hydrogen to heavy elements
with ever increasing star production
with decreasing hydrogen
where is this increasing supply of hydrogen coming from?

p.s. your answer will most certainly bring the ugly troll's from under their bridge
rrwillsj
4.2 / 5 (5) Dec 01, 2018
granny, call me giggly troll, I am rather weathervane over my good looks & dull-razor wit!

As to your question.
"where is this increasing supply of hydrogen coming from?"
Uhhmm, what "increasing supply of hydrogen"? Where in the world? Excuse me, in this cosmos? Did you ever get the idea that there is a natural process producing a new supply of hydrogen?

Cause my understanding (true - limited) of the subject is that most of the Universe's existing supply of H came about at the end of the BB when the quark soup began to cool down & spontaneously self-organize into H & He.

We have only recently developed the technology to begin observing the Cosmos in depth & breadth. Does not mean the previously unseen materials, processes or phenomena are physically "New".

However, if you accept the hypothesis of neutrino's decaying into Majorana DM particles, releasing Majorarcana DE energies?

Perhaps a still unknown neutrino decay produces "new Hydrogen? Maybe?
granville583762
2.3 / 5 (3) Dec 01, 2018
Conversion of hydrogen to heavy elements
rrwillsj> granny, call me giggly troll, I am rather weathervane over my good looks & dull-razor wit!

"where is this increasing supply of hydrogen coming from?
Uhhmm, what "increasing supply of hydrogen"? Where in the world? "
Careful rrwillsj, I wasn't expecting anyone choking on the fumes of the last burnt hydrogen
well not untill the last star went nova
giggly troll's, wonders will never cease
rrwillsj
4.2 / 5 (5) Dec 01, 2018
sorry granny but you have still failed to explain your claim "that there is an increasing supply of hydrogen in the Universe".
RealityCheck
2.1 / 5 (7) Dec 01, 2018
@granville583762.
as stars go supernova
converting hydrogen to heavy elements....where is this increasing supply of hydrogen coming from?
As previously explained, the infinite-epoch universal energy-space extent/process in constant state of flux, back and forth between transformational forms, ie: from Quantum Vacuum Energy forms->to E-M Energy forms->to MATTER Energy forms->to Gravitational Energy forms...and then back again, and so on, constantly 're-circulating' the effective energy-space quotient inherent to the Universe.

The many varied scales and ubiquitous distribution of these 'recycling' sites/mechanisms for this 'energy-space recycling' was already pointed out by me; ONE example being extremely energetic 'accretion-disc-and-polar-jets' systems effectively 'deconstructing' massive/complex atoms/molecules into Quark-Gluon plasma 'ejected' by Jets/Winds into surrounding space where the Q-G plasma REFORMS into Hydrogen etc until again 'recycled' thus.

Cheers. :)
granville583762
2.3 / 5 (3) Dec 01, 2018
rrwillsj> sorry granny but you have still failed to explain your claim that there is an increasing supply of hydrogen in the Universe

These stars
take 10million yrs to form
live for 10billion yrs
as the universe is 13billion yrs
these stars are way past their life span
yet there is as many stars today
as there was 13billion years ago
where the starry hydrogen
is rapidly converting to heavy elements

The milky way is 13billion years old
and depending if everyone has their figures right
which is debatable
it could be older
making for the stars being replaced many times over
which means even less hydrogen available
which means even more hydrogen being replaced

It might be my way
I don't make claims
observations and assumptions
but not claims because I always backtrack when theories fall flat

There could be enough hydrogen in the universe to keep millions of universes on the go
The hydrogen count has not been calculated yet
granville583762
2.3 / 5 (3) Dec 01, 2018
Rrwillsj:- There could be enough hydrogen in the universe to keep millions of universes on the go

The hydrogen count has not been calculated yet
this was the point I had not yet come round to saying rrwillsj
the hydrogen atom count in a 15billion Lyr radius
based on the number of atoms a cubic Lyr
that is my next task
then the next task
is how many atoms in 2.0x10+30kg
what percentage do supernova stars convert hydrogen to heavy elements
you can see rrwillsj
I am not making any claim
that there is an increasing supply of hydrogen in the Universe
granville583762
2.3 / 5 (3) Dec 01, 2018
When stars go supernova
@granville583762.
as stars go supernova
converting hydrogen to heavy elements....where is this increasing supply of hydrogen coming from?
As previously explained, the infinite-epoch universal energy-space extent/process in constant state of flux, back and forth between transformational forms, ie: from Quantum Vacuum Energy forms->to E-M Energy forms->to MATTER Energy forms->to Gravitational Energy forms...and then back again, and so on, constantly 're-circulating' the effective energy-space quotient inherent to the Universe………..The many varied scales and ubiquitous distribution of these 'recycling' sites/mechanisms for this 'energy-space recycling' was already pointed out by me; the Q-G plasma REFORMS into Hydrogen etc until again 'recycled' thus.Cheers. :)

We're adding all this info together to do a final calculation to see how the figures mathematically add up RC
Da Schneib
4.2 / 5 (5) Dec 01, 2018
@granny opposes science with, wait for it, poetry.

Now, I like poetry, but this is silly. It's like opposing the Big Bang with the Babble by the drugged-out stone age sheep herders about the giant super magic daddy in the sky.
Surveillance_Egg_Unit
1.8 / 5 (5) Dec 01, 2018
@granville
There is only a finite quantity of pure Hydrogen gas in the Universe - whatever was created during or before the Big Bang. Apparently the H gas doesn't remain pure for very long as it is used up in the Fusion process of Star-making. But RC is correct also, that Hydrogen, as is everything else, is recycled, purified, and used again and again. The Universe is programmed to do just that - recycle everything. If it did not - then as you said:

"making for the stars being replaced many times over
which means even less hydrogen available
which means even more hydrogen being replaced"

But the recycling is key to the survivorship of the Universe, as it is doubtful that so much more Hydrogen gas is being created/produced from Quantum manufacturing sources.
When Stars are created through the processes of Fusion, it is done as a part of the natural order - it is programmed to do what it must - and also the reason for accretion disks that provide the base.
Da Schneib
4.3 / 5 (6) Dec 01, 2018
Apparently the H gas doesn't remain pure for very long as it is used up in the Fusion process of Star-making.
Ummwut? YECs always get this stuff wrong. There's more mass in H in the universe than all the galaxies put together.

Just another YEC lying for its imaginary jebus.
Surveillance_Egg_Unit
1.8 / 5 (5) Dec 01, 2018
granny, call me giggly troll, I am rather weathervane over my good looks & dull-razor wit!


says rrwilliejoe

Hmmmm and hmmm - I would never have taken you for the type who sits on a roof pretending to be a weathervane while admiring yourself. Seems to be a clear indication that you turn to, according to whichever way the wind blows. Granville already is aware that you are a "giggly troll". It was evident from the start.
By the way, rrwilliejoe - do you know someone called jebus? DaJerk is in the habit of mentioning this strange fellow. Maybe they're buttbuddies?
Da Schneib
4.3 / 5 (6) Dec 01, 2018
Noted @YEC_SEU has no answer. Because it has no physics.

Can we discuss the article now? Or are we going to let this YEC troll destroy the discussion, its original intent?
granville583762
1 / 5 (1) Dec 02, 2018
Exploding white dwarfs
called a degenerate dwarf a stellar core remnant composed of electron-degenerate matter a white dwarfs mass equals the Sun its volume is that of Earth a WDs faint luminosity comes from the emission of stored thermal energy
https://en.wikipe...te_dwarf

Observations of SN 2018oh support the long-held idea Type 1a supernovae are triggered when compact white dwarf siphons enough material from a companion star to reach critical mass setting off a titanic thermonuclear blast SN 2018oh exhibited a faster-than-expected brightening that could indicate a more complex mechanism at work
https://astronomy...estions/

Clarification factuals
A white dwarf accreting plasma from an orbiting star
causing said WD to go supernova
when talking accretion discs
Do not mention Sagittarius A*
https://wis-tns.w...t/2018oh
granville583762
1 / 5 (1) Dec 02, 2018
Recycling the Universe
SEU> @granville
There is only a finite quantity of pure Hydrogen gas in the Universe - whatever was created during or before the Big Bang. Apparently the H gas doesn't remain pure for very long as it is used up in the Fusion process of Star-making. But RC is correct also that Hydrogen, as is everything else, is recycled, purified, and used again and again The Universe is programmed to do just that - recycle everything. If it did not - then as you said:
making for the stars being replaced many times over
which means even less hydrogen available
which means even more hydrogen being replaced
But the recycling is key to the survivorship of the Universe

SEU
This is actually the real point I am making
With a finite supply of hydrogen
as stars go supernova
as RealityCheck is alluding to
this sceptered universe
will run out of hydrogen
this scepterd universe
is recycling
its waste
converting it to
Pristine protons
granville583762
1 / 5 (1) Dec 02, 2018
Da Schneib in Transformation

Da Schneib
Opposes science
with
wait for it
poetry
Now I, Da Schneib
like poetry
but this is silly
It's like
opposing the Big Bang
with the Babble
by the drugged-out
stone age sheep herders
about the giant super magic daddy in the sky

Da Schneib, if you are going to wax lyrical
There are a few requirements
As you have
The artistic temperament
No direct inferring, esoteric only
Queens English, spelling mistakes are human
Good look on your transformation
FredJose
1 / 5 (6) Dec 03, 2018
@SEU - >
all of these 'occurrences' in the cosmos are as Nature intended - for whatever it's worth

Nature does not intend anything - nature is imply an abstraction, not a person.
However, if you're going to personify in order to attribute, perhaps it might be better to simply cut out the middle-thing and go directly to the source: God, the Creator.

1 Cor 15:41
The sun has one degree of splendor, the moon another, and the stars another; and star differs from star in splendor.

Basically, each star is uniquely created by our God, the one and only God of Heaven, God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. And no, God did NOT program the clouds of gas to form stars over billions of years,.....they were all created in one fell swoop on earth time standard day number four.
antialias_physorg
5 / 5 (6) Dec 03, 2018
God did NOT program the clouds
God din't do anything. he's a figment of your imagination. Deal with it.

Go somewhere else where others with the same delusion live. No shortage of religious nut forums out there.
On here no one will buy your childrens' tales.
rrwillsj
5 / 5 (2) Dec 03, 2018
Oh deer segue, you accuse me of being a weathervane about Scientific issues. Always pointing in the direction the wind is blowing?

Thank You! Smartest comment you have ever made or are capable of expounding.

As a weathervane, I am pointing in the direction of the driving squall line of Empirical Science.

Whether or not I agree with the conclusions advanced about the preliminary results!

As for whoever your buddy Jebus is? I'd hope he is smart enough to not lend you money or access to his sheep!
jonesdave
4 / 5 (4) Dec 03, 2018
@SEU - >
all of these 'occurrences' in the cosmos are as Nature intended - for whatever it's worth

Nature does not intend anything - nature is imply an abstraction, not a person.
However, if you're going to personify in order to attribute, perhaps it might be better to simply cut out the middle-thing and go directly to the source: God, the Creator.

1 Cor 15:41
The sun has one degree of splendor, the moon another, and the stars another; and star differs from star in splendor.

Basically, each star is uniquely created by our God, the one and only God of Heaven, God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. And no, God did NOT program the clouds of gas to form stars over billions of years,.....they were all created in one fell swoop on earth time standard day number four.


Primitive, superstitious crap.
rrwillsj
5 / 5 (1) Dec 03, 2018
Oh jd, you are just too kind and forgiving towards segue's multitude of intellectual fails.

Primitive peoples worked hard, sacrificed much, even gave their lives to bolster upwards the Human ladder to climb out of the pit of ignorance that segue extols.

The superstitions he preaches from are the revenants of a long line of Human-Monkey folly.
{anthro-primate?}

It is perfectly clear. that crap is just too advanced for segue & his ilk.
The best he can do, hanging from a branch by his prehensile tail, from his Tree of Ignorance? Is fling shit.

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