Hyper Suprime-Cam survey maps dark matter in the universe

September 26, 2018, Carnegie Mellon University
The weak lensing surveys such as HSC prefer a slightly less clumpy Universe (left) than that predicted by Planck (right). The pictures show the slight but noticeable difference as expected from large computer simulations. Credit: Hyper Suprime-Cam Survey

Today, an international group of researchers, including Carnegie Mellon University's Rachel Mandelbaum, released the deepest wide field map of the three-dimensional distribution of matter in the universe ever made and increased the precision of constraints for dark energy with the Hyper Suprime-Cam survey (HSC).

The present-day universe is a pretty lumpy place. As the universe has expanded over the last 14 billion years or so, and dark matter have been increasingly drawn together by gravity, creating a clumpy landscape with large aggregates of matter separated by voids where there is little or no matter.

The gravity that pulls matter together also impacts how we observe astronomical objects. As light travels from distant galaxies towards Earth, the gravitational pull of the other matter in its path, including dark matter, bends the light. As a result, the images of galaxies that telescopes see are slightly distorted, a phenomenon called weak gravitation lensing. Within those distortions is a great amount of information that researchers can mine to better understand the distribution of matter in the universe, and it provides clues to the nature of dark .

The HSC map, created from data gathered by Japan's Subaru telescope located in Hawaii, allowed researchers to measure the gravitational distortion in images of about 10 million galaxies.

Left panel: The 3-dimensional dark matter map of the universe inferred from one of the six HSC observation areas is shown in the background with various shades of blue (brighter areas have more dark matter). The map was inferred from the distortions of shapes of galaxies in the HSC data which are indicated by white sticks. The stick lengths represent the amount of distortion and the angle of the stick corresponds to the direction of the distortion. Right panel: The measurements are enabled by the light from distant galaxies that travels through the universe and gets deflected by matter at different epochs in the universe, before reaching the Subaru telescope. Credit: HSC project/UTokyo

The Subaru telescope allowed them to see the galaxies further back in time than in other similar surveys. For example, the Dark Energy Survey analyzes a much larger area of the sky at a similar level of precision as HSC, but only surveys the nearby universe. HSC takes a narrower, but deeper view, which allowed researchers to see fainter galaxies and make a sharper map of dark matter distribution.

The research team compared their map with the fluctuations predicted by the European Space Agency Planck satellite's observations of the cosmic microwave background radiation—radiation from the earliest days of the universe. The HSC measurements were slightly lower than, but still statistically consistent with Planck's. The fact that HSC and other weak lensing surveys all find slightly lower results than Planck raises the tantalizing question of whether dark energy truly behaves like Einstein's cosmological constant.

The cosmological constraints on the clumpiness of the Universe today (S8) predicted using observations at different times in the Universe. The HSC measurement of the clumpiness of the Universe is shown with the red symbol and are among the farthest measurements using weak gravitational lensing. These should be compared with the Planck results obtained from observations of the cosmic microwave background in the very early Universe and other contemporary weak lensing experiments KiDS and DES. Credit: HSC project/UTokyo
"Our map gives us a better picture of how much dark energy there is and tells us a little more about its properties and how it's making the expansion of the accelerate," Mandelbaum said. "The HSC is a great complement to other surveys. Combining data across projects will be a powerful tool as we try uncover more and more about the nature of dark and dark energy."

Measuring the distortions caused by weak gravitational lensing isn't easy. The effect is quite small and distortions in galaxy shapes can also be caused by the atmosphere, the telescope and the detector. To get precise, accurate results, researchers need to know that they are only measuring effects from weak lensing.

Mandelbaum, associate professor of physics and member of the McWilliams Center for Cosmology at Carnegie Mellon, is an expert at controlling for these outside distortions. She and her team created a detailed image simulation of the HSC survey data based on images from the Hubble Space Telescope. From these simulations, they were able to apply corrections to the galaxy shapes to remove the shape distortions caused by effects other than lensing.

The weak lensing surveys such as HSC prefer a slightly less clumpy Universe than that predicted by Planck. The pictures show the slight but noticeable difference as expected from large computer simulations. Is this difference a statistical fluctuation? Astronomers all around the world continue to collect more and more data to answer this question. Credit: UTokyo

These results come from the HSC survey's first year of data. In all, the HSC will collect five years of data that will yield even more information about the behavior of dark energy and work towards other goals such as studying the evolution of galaxies and massive clusters of galaxies across cosmic time, measuring time-varying objects like supernovae, and even studying our own Milky Way galaxy.

The research will be uploaded to the preprint server arxiv.org and will be submitted to the Publication of the Astronomical Society of Japan.

Explore further: BUFFALO charges towards the earliest galaxies

More information: Cosmology from cosmic shear power spectra with Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam first-year data , arxiv.org/abs/1809.09148

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Old_C_Code
2.6 / 5 (20) Sep 26, 2018
Dark matter is the worst physics theory ever proposed. It's ruined astronomy.
RNP
3.8 / 5 (16) Sep 26, 2018
Open access copy of paper here; https://arxiv.org...9148.pdf
antialias_physorg
3.3 / 5 (19) Sep 26, 2018
Dark matter is the worst physics theory ever proposed. It's ruined astronomy.

It's nice that some uneducated slob tells us these things. Really. Do you have any more of these hyper-intelligent gems that humanity absolutely must know about? Here's your chance.
hat1208
3.3 / 5 (14) Sep 26, 2018
I love the ignore button
Old_C_Code
2.6 / 5 (17) Sep 26, 2018
You idiot, uneducated for thinking invisible magic matter exists, and 90% of the universe is at the edge of galaxies, you are a totally educated idiot antialias.

It is so stupid, but okay with non-reality thinking unaccomplished math clowns. FU too hat.
This engineer says you are full of chit. At least astronomy was interesting and sensible with Sagan.
rossim22
2.7 / 5 (16) Sep 26, 2018
Dark matter is the result of a mathematician doing a scientist's job.
Ojorf
3.1 / 5 (15) Sep 26, 2018
You idiot, uneducated for thinking invisible magic matter exists, and 90% of the universe is at the edge of galaxies, you are a totally educated idiot antialias.
It is so stupid, but okay with non-reality thinking unaccomplished math clowns. FU too hat.
This engineer says you are full of chit. At least astronomy was interesting and sensible with Sagan.


You should get with the evidence you moron.
Stop living in the last century and get up to date.
MrBojangles
3.5 / 5 (12) Sep 26, 2018
Old_C_Code

Air was "invisible magic matter" before we understood the gases that make it up. To simply say it's the worst theory ever proposed without offering anything to substantiate your claim makes you look pretty ignorant.
Old_C_Code
2.8 / 5 (11) Sep 26, 2018
"You should get with the evidence you moron."

What evidence? you dope, no evidence, just wishful thinking.

Newton was simply WRONG, at the quantum level, and the galactic level.

Bojangles: air made sense, wave your hands. Having 99% of the galaxy at the edge of the galaxy is NOT sensible.
Old_C_Code
2.9 / 5 (11) Sep 26, 2018
I think JonesDav is right, there is little to no evidence E&M causes the stars to rotate around the galaxy like a simple electric motor. But that doesn't mean dark matter exists.

Dark matter has yet to be discovered! You pretend it's settled science
RNP
3.6 / 5 (15) Sep 26, 2018
@Old_C_code
Having 99% of the galaxy at the edge of the galaxy is not sensible.


Of course its not! Let me say again. This is a common misunderstanding of what astronomers mean by a "halo". A halo is something that permeates AND extends beyond the rest of the galaxy. I.e. NOT just "at the edge of the galaxy".

ShotmanMaslo
3.3 / 5 (9) Sep 26, 2018
Newton was simply WRONG, at the quantum level, and the galactic level.


Modification to Newtonian dynamics has yet to be discovered! You pretend it's settled science

Two can play this game, you crackpot.
RNP
3.3 / 5 (13) Sep 26, 2018
@Old_C_code
To see what I mean, see Figure 2 at the end of https://arxiv.org...9478.pdf to see that, in fact the density of DM is greatest AT THE CENTRE OF THE GALAXY.

Also, the Milky Way also has a *stellar* halo. This doesn't mean that halo stars are confined outside the galaxy, there are many within the galaxy. It is simply that they are ALSO distributed beyond the rest of the galaxy. (See phys.org article
https://phys.org/...lge.html which states "halo stars pass through the solar neighbourhood").
rossim22
2 / 5 (10) Sep 26, 2018

Of course its not! Let me say again. This is a common misunderstanding of what astronomers mean by a "halo". A halo is something that permeates AND extends beyond the rest of the galaxy. I.e. NOT just "at the edge of the galaxy".


According to Newtonian gravity, stars nearer to the center of a galaxy must rotate around the center much faster than stars on the perimeter. We don't observe that. We observe stars closer to the center rotating around the galaxy with nearly the same velocity as those on the perimeter.

The ad hoc dark matter must be nearly all on the outside (way outside) rim of the galaxy to allow for a flat rotation curve. Sure a minuscule amount of DM might be theorized to permeate the galaxy itself, why not?
IwinUlose
4.1 / 5 (11) Sep 26, 2018
Dark matter has yet to be discovered! You pretend it's settled science

You're mixing up terminology, and glossing over the very reason it was termed 'dark matter'.

Dark matter has yet to be identified.
Old_C_Code
2.7 / 5 (12) Sep 26, 2018
RNP: " DM is greatest AT THE CENTRE OF THE GALAXY." ... oh it is not, else no debate. If at the center, then dark matter is no big deal, and not dark.

Shot: Crackpot for being open-minded, right, you close-minded LOSER. Only close-minded losers would attack the skeptics on dark matter.

Old_C_Code
2.6 / 5 (12) Sep 26, 2018
"Dark matter has yet to be identified." --- LOL

It's called MATTER because they want to still use Newton's equation at galactic scales.

Newton's laws not working at the quantum level is accepted just fine, but dare not question them at galactic scales.
RNP
3.3 / 5 (15) Sep 26, 2018

@rossim
The ad hoc dark matter must be nearly all on the outside (way outside) rim of the galaxy to allow for a flat rotation curve.


This is factually incorrect. In any spherically symmetric distribution (such as DM Halos) matter outside of the galaxy has NO effect on the motions of stars within the galaxies. I

If you want to actually learn some physics try this simple lesson in Newtonian physics; http://www.astro....re3.html

It states/shows that;
"Newton derived two useful theorems concerning spherical shells of matter.

(1) A body inside a spherical shell of matter experiences no net gravitational force from the shell.

(2) A body lying outside a closed spherical shell experiences a gravitational force which is the same as if all the matter in the shell were concentrated at a point at its center."
RNP
3.3 / 5 (15) Sep 26, 2018
RNP: " DM is greatest AT THE CENTRE OF THE GALAXY." ... oh it is not, else no debate. If at the center, then dark matter is no big deal, and not dark.


So, how do you explain the paper I linked?

I can give you dozens more examples of real papers in real journals, all in the same vein, if you want. This is easy because *this* is what the REAL science is saying.

YOUR explanation is confusing you and blinding you to what real scientists are trying to say.
IwinUlose
3.5 / 5 (13) Sep 26, 2018
"Dark matter has yet to be identified." --- LOL

It's called MATTER because they want to still use Newton's equation at galactic scales.

Newton's laws not working at the quantum level is accepted just fine, but dare not question them at galactic scales.


It's called matter because it has been observed to warp space-time. What else does this besides matter?

Also, questioning any part of a scientific model is always necessary, however, I can't find the question marks in your response to me; or to others:
Dark matter is the worst physics theory ever proposed. It's ruined astronomy.

RNP: " DM is greatest AT THE CENTRE OF THE GALAXY." ... oh it is not, else no debate. If at the center, then dark matter is no big deal, and not dark.
Shot: Crackpot for being open-minded, right, you close-minded LOSER. Only close-minded losers would attack the skeptics on dark matter.
IwinUlose
3.7 / 5 (11) Sep 26, 2018
"You should get with the evidence you moron."

What evidence? you dope, no evidence, just wishful thinking.

Newton was simply WRONG, at the quantum level, and the galactic level.

Bojangles: air made sense, wave your hands. Having 99% of the galaxy at the edge of the galaxy is NOT sensible.


oh I guess this one has a question mark, but everything having to do with the topic is a statement.

The evidence by the way is not just in galactic rotational curves but more recently in gravitational lensing surveys.
IwinUlose
3.5 / 5 (11) Sep 26, 2018
Lastly,

Starting with a comment like,
Dark matter is the worst physics theory ever proposed. It's ruined astronomy.
then immediately taking the victimized position of
but dare not question them at galactic scales
after a few rebuttals is just weak.
Old_C_Code
2.6 / 5 (9) Sep 26, 2018
No links to all the studies that can't confirm dark matter.
I'll gather some... BBL
rossim22
2.4 / 5 (7) Sep 26, 2018

This is factually incorrect. In any spherically symmetric distribution (such as DM Halos) matter outside of the galaxy has NO effect on the motions of stars within the galaxies. I

If you want to actually learn some physics try this simple lesson in Newtonian physics; http://www.astro....re3.html

It states/shows that;
"Newton derived two useful theorems concerning spherical shells of matter.

@RNP

I think you've misunderstood the information within the link you've provided.

A hypothesized three-dimensional dark matter halo would most definitely have an effect on the motion of the stars within the galaxy (that's the whole point).

"The presence of dark matter (DM) in the halo is inferred from its gravitational effect on a spiral galaxy's rotation curve." - Wikipedia

I'd be happy to reference papers for you, after you've finished your lesson on Newtonian physics.
rrwillsj
3 / 5 (8) Sep 26, 2018
What's really, trully, subconsciously bothering pld_crank and the other EU cultists? Is that term "Dark Matter".

You have to realize these pathetic creatures cower trembling under their mommie's beds. Terrified as the society they barely inhabit and fail to contribute to, is demographic-shifting to female and colored and young.

Now, real scientists are using terms such as "blackhole", dark matter", dark energy", big bang". Those trapped in their acien regime dream world find those words scary and threatening.

I mean if we are all frightening yje poor delicate creatures so much? Perhaps we could change those terms to some term that won't have them pissing their pantaloons all the time?

"blackhole" = superdrain?
dark matter" = pale inertia?
dark energy" = blowupballoon?
big bang"= whizbang?

Perhaps you real-science wonks and boffins would have other suggestions? I'm sure you are finding the antiscience crackedpottery of the lunatic fringe as tedious as I do!
fthompson495
1 / 5 (9) Sep 26, 2018
Dark matter is a supersolid that fills 'empty' space, strongly interacts with ordinary matter and is displaced by ordinary matter. What is referred to geometrically as curved spacetime physically exists in nature as the state of displacement of the supersolid dark matter. The state of displacement of the supersolid dark matter is gravity.

The supersolid dark matter displaced by a galaxy pushes back, causing the stars in the outer arms of the galaxy to orbit the galactic center at the rate in which they do.

Displaced supersolid dark matter is curved spacetime.
RNP
3.5 / 5 (15) Sep 26, 2018
@rossim
A hypothesized three-dimensional dark matter halo would most definitely have an effect on the motion of the stars within the galaxy (that's the whole point).

"The presence of dark matter (DM) in the halo is inferred from its gravitational effect on a spiral galaxy's rotation curve." - Wikipedia


Let me try to explain this to you again.

The halo extends from the centre of the galaxy, into its outer reaches, and beyond (as my reference above clearly shows).

It is the DM in the INNER parts of the galaxy that affect the rotation curve.(Recall again your lesson in Newtonian physics above).
Old_C_Code
2.2 / 5 (10) Sep 26, 2018
RNP
3 / 5 (14) Sep 26, 2018
@Old_C_Code
What, are you trying to imply with the random list of links you give above?

You should note that the majority are crank sites and the most authoritative source in the list of links you provide is the Indian Times.

Not exactly known as a font of research astrophysics, is it?
Old_C_Code
2.3 / 5 (9) Sep 26, 2018
Scientific American is a crank site? Ugh...
RNP
2.7 / 5 (14) Sep 26, 2018
@Old_C_Code
That's you defence of your almost random, and unexplained list of references?

I have nothing left to say to you.
MrBojangles
3.9 / 5 (13) Sep 26, 2018
Old_C_Code

The link to Scientific American is a good read, but the old aphorism "The absence of evidence is not the evidence of absence" is particularly apropos.

Gravitational waves were predicted to exist in 1916, but we weren't able to directly detect them until 2016. It took us 100 years to detect something we knew theoretically should exist 100 years ago. Just because we have not directly observed dark matter, doesn't mean it doesn't exist. It may or it may not, however, as of right now it is our best way of describing our observations of the apparent motions of galaxies. It may be overwritten by a more complete theory with a better understanding of the underlying physics, or we may eventually detect it directly, corroborating the current theory. Until then, comments like "dark matter is the worst theory of physics ever" don't do anything to advance the conversation or knowledge itself.
tallenglish
1.5 / 5 (8) Sep 26, 2018
Time Integrates, Space Differenciates - e.g. for 3D energy, time is 0.25.D^4, space is 3.D^2. So while space is a + bi format, time needs to be a + bi + cj + dk format and a is white spin (red + green + blue), b is red only, c is green only and d is blue only spin, for space a is momentum and b is mass. I.e. 3D+1T.

This means to understand 3D energy you also need to understand imaginary time as well as real time, dark matter is what sits in that imaginary time - thats why it neither interacts via E/M, Strong or Weak and only Gravity.

Understand this and you will also know where the missing anti-matter is and how it is seperated from matter as well as an as yet unknown substance called anti-darkmatter.

https://drive.goo...=sharing

Speed of light, is actually the speed of the total hyperbolic rotation that converts M->DM->AM->ADM->M again, i.e a roation +t->+it->-t->-it->+t again.
tallenglish
1.5 / 5 (8) Sep 26, 2018
Thats just special relativity btw, nothing shockingly new.

Dark Matter, Anti-Matter and Anti-Dark Matter are all the same stuff as Matter, the just naturally exist in different parts of spacetime.
torbjorn_b_g_larsson
3.3 / 5 (10) Sep 26, 2018
"The HSC measurements were slightly lower than, but still statistically consistent with Planck's."

Translation: nothing to see here. In fact, the press release is based on a speculative ending of the paper conclusion, while the paper itself show that their data prefer the LCDM model over varying dark energy and that they do not expect more data move the dark matter observations much.

As for the thread, it is obviously that the not-dark matter proponents are now forced to resort to sophistry.
Old_C_Code
2.8 / 5 (9) Sep 26, 2018
Bojangles: It's a terrible theory imo. But at least my post had you talking.

It makes physics majors go into programming, and actually get something useful done. heh

MrBojangles
4.5 / 5 (8) Sep 26, 2018
Without physicists, computers (and therefore programming) would not exist :P
Surveillance_Egg_Unit
2.6 / 5 (5) Sep 26, 2018
Without physicists, computers (and therefore programming) would not exist :P
says MrB

That would depend on which kind of Physics you are referring to, of which there are many various disciplines.
Computers, programming, developing, etc. are but one. Quantum Physics is another. Some are interrelated but others are not. Astrophysicists use computers for their simulations as most others do, simply because it is easier to use computers than to perform maths equations, for instance, on paper.
Surveillance_Egg_Unit
2.6 / 5 (5) Sep 26, 2018
The reality is that the cloud or halo called Dark Matter is actually an large, mysterious entity that settles itself into and around many galaxies - similar to a flesh-eating bacterium or a paramoecium. It is unicellular and emits no light of its own, but often reflects the light from the Stars from which it feeds. This is where the image of a halo emanates. It hungrily feeds on energy from every source that it encounters within each of the galaxies. There is not just one but many of these galaxy-sized creatures.
They enter into the spaces between planets also, and they suck energy from living things that they find on planets that bear life. The non-lifebearing planets are ignored.
When they have glutted themselves with enough energy they move on until they come upon a new source of energy/food.
They are particularly fond of Eukaryotes and will often feed on memories, rendering their victims unable to remember typing their thoughts twice rather than once.

:)>
Old_C_Code
1.4 / 5 (9) Sep 26, 2018
"For example, when two galaxies merge, streams of gas can collide, while the dark matter is thought to pass through without interacting." -- How lucky can they get, when galaxies merge dark matter doesn't interact. God these geniuses are stupid... and lucky.

https://www.quant...0180328/

It's almost as bad as the climate change dopes saying warming increases rain, and also increases drought. You can't win with these buffoons.
rrwillsj
3.5 / 5 (8) Sep 27, 2018
old_coot, can you understand that when more rain is dumped on a floodplain already awash with too much falling and rising water?
That is not a good thing.

While simultaneously, a thousand miles away, a drought stricken region is praying for any rain before the crops all die and the forests burn up?
That is not a good thing.

When a major temperate climate region is inundated with freezing weather and howling blizzards?
That is not a good thing.

A populated tropical area being crushed under super-typhoons?
That is not a good thing.

Polar arctic regions suffering extensive warm weather, melting the ice caps and once frozen tundra?
That is not a good thing.

All of the above? Following in quick succession or even several occurring simultaneously?
That is a very, very bad thing!

You denier hucksters proclaim the primitive customs of your inbred tribe as the Laws of the Universe? The Cosmos sneers back at you and mocks your monkey pretensions with reality.
Old_C_Code
1.7 / 5 (6) Sep 27, 2018
rrwilljiz: The net rain either increases or decreases you moron.

And all your alarmist crap is simply crap, no science.
kidrock75
3.5 / 5 (8) Sep 27, 2018
Old_C_Code are you also a flat earther????
Old_C_Code
1.7 / 5 (6) Sep 27, 2018
kidrock: No, but you clearly are an idiot with that screen name.

Dumbazz clown. Why don't you continue to scare us with lambrained imagination of the awful consequences of Earth's weather, like rrwillgizbag has earlier.
Surveillance_Egg_Unit
2.5 / 5 (8) Sep 27, 2018
old_coot, can you understand that when more rain is dumped on a floodplain already awash with too much falling and rising water?

While simultaneously, a thousand miles away, a drought stricken region is praying for any rain before the crops all die and the forests burn up?

When a major temperate climate region is inundated with freezing weather and howling blizzards?

A populated tropical area being crushed under super-typhoons?
Polar arctic regions suffering extensive warm weather, melting the ice caps and once frozen tundra?
All of the above? Following in quick succession or even several occurring simultaneously?
You denier hucksters proclaim the primitive customs of your inbred tribe as the Laws of the Universe? The Cosmos sneers back at you and mocks your monkey pretensions with reality.


These are what is called "Weather". It has been that way for billions of years. Why don't you go after the polluters who dump garbage in lakes, rivers and the ocean?
rrwillsj
2.3 / 5 (3) Sep 28, 2018
Oh segue my boy. "We have met the enemy. And he is us."

segue, you and old_coot and auntieoral, are living cushy,lives of inflated smug self-delusion in cocoons provided and protected by the society you so despise. Nice if you can get.

No surprise that none of you ever earned that welfare propping you up. Except of course for all the groveling you do before your masters.
Surveillance_Egg_Unit
2.6 / 5 (5) Sep 30, 2018
@rrwillsj

segue | ˈseɡwā, ˈsā- |
verb (segues, segueing | ˈseɡwā-iNG, ˈsā- | , segued | ˈseɡwād, ˈsā- | ) [no object, with adverbial]
(in music and film) move without interruption from one song, melody, or scene to another: allowing one song to segue into the next.
noun
an uninterrupted transition from one piece of music or film scene to another.
savvys84
1 / 5 (3) Oct 01, 2018
dark matter is what gives mass to the matter as we know it, so it has to be everywhere
rrwillsj
1 / 5 (1) Oct 03, 2018
Gosh savvy, you may be even more correct than you know.

No more abusing the term "Dark Matter". Instead the newly discovered particle will be called a "Majoron". A product of the decay of tau and muon neutrinos.

Boys and girls, it's a whole new ball game. And everything you thought you knew is up for re-interpretation if not simply outright obsolete!

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