Tiny distortions in universe's oldest light reveal clearer picture of strands in cosmic web

April 10, 2018 by Glenn Roberts Jr., Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
In this illustration, the trajectory of cosmic microwave background (CMB) light is bent by structures known as filaments that are invisible to our eyes, creating an effect known as weak lensing captured by the Planck satellite (left), a space observatory. Researchers used computers to study this weak lensing of the CMB and produce a map of filaments, which typically span hundreds of light years in length. Credit: Siyu He, Shadab Alam, Wei Chen, and Planck/ESA

Scientists have decoded faint distortions in the patterns of the universe's earliest light to map huge tubelike structures invisible to our eyes – known as filaments – that serve as superhighways for delivering matter to dense hubs such as galaxy clusters.

The international science team, which included researchers from the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and UC Berkeley, analyzed data from past sky surveys using sophisticated image-recognition technology to home in on the gravity-based effects that identify the shapes of these filaments. They also used models and theories about the filaments to help guide and interpret their analysis.

Published April 9 in the journal Nature Astronomy, the detailed exploration of filaments will help researchers to better understand the formation and evolution of the cosmic web – the large-scale structure of matter in the universe – including the mysterious, unseen stuff known as dark matter that makes up about 85 percent of the total mass of the universe.

Dark matter constitutes the filaments – which researchers learned typically stretch and bend across hundreds of millions of light years – and the so-called halos that host clusters of galaxies are fed by the universal network of filaments. More studies of these filaments could provide new insights about , another mystery of the universe that drives its accelerating expansion.

Filament properties could also put gravity theories to the test, including Einstein's theory of general relativity, and lend important clues to help solve an apparent mismatch in the amount of visible matter predicted to exist in the universe – the "missing baryon problem."

"Usually researchers don't study these filaments directly – they look at galaxies in observations," said Shirley Ho, a senior scientist at Berkeley Lab and Cooper-Siegel associate professor of physics at Carnegie Mellon University who led the study. "We used the same methods to find the filaments that Yahoo and Google use for image recognition, like recognizing the names of street signs or finding cats in photographs."

Filament structures in the cosmic web are shown at different time periods, ranging from when the universe was 12.3 billion years old (left) to when the universe was 7.4 billion years old (right). The area in the animation spans 7,500 square degrees of space. Evidence is strongest for the filament structures represented in blue. Other likely filament structures are shaded purple, magenta, and red. Credit: Yen-Chi Chen and Shirley Ho

The study used data from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, or BOSS, an Earth-based sky survey that captured light from about 1.5 million galaxies to study the universe's expansion and the patterned distribution of matter in the universe set in motion by the propagation of sound waves, or "baryonic acoustic oscillations," rippling in the early universe.

The BOSS survey team, which featured Berkeley Lab scientists in key roles, produced a catalog of likely filament structures that connected clusters of matter that researchers drew from in the latest study.

Researchers also relied on precise, space-based measurements of the cosmic microwave background, or CMB, which is the nearly uniform remnant signal from the first light of the universe. While this light signature is very similar across the universe, there are regular fluctuations that have been mapped in previous surveys.

In the latest study, researchers focused on patterned fluctuations in the CMB. They used sophisticated computer algorithms to seek out the imprint of filaments from gravity-based distortions in the CMB, known as weak lensing effects, that are caused by the CMB light passing through matter.

Since galaxies live in the densest regions of the universe, the weak lensing signal from the deflection of CMB light is strongest from those parts. Dark matter resides in the halos around those galaxies, and was also known to spread from those denser areas in filaments.

"We knew that these filaments should also cause a deflection of CMB and would also produce a measurable weak gravitational lensing signal," said Siyu He, the study's lead author who is a Ph.D. researcher from Carnegie Mellon University – she is now at Berkeley Lab and is also affiliated with UC Berkeley. The research team used statistical techniques to identify and compare the "ridges," or points of higher density that theories informed them would point to the presence of filaments.

Visualizing the cosmic web: This computerized simulation by the Virgo Consortium, called the Millennium Simulation, shows a web-like structure in the universe composed of galaxies and the dark matter around them. Credit: Millennium Simulation Project
"We were not just trying to 'connect the dots' – we were trying to find these ridges in the density, the local maximum points in density," she said. They checked their findings with other filament and galaxy cluster data, and with "mocks," or simulated filaments based on observations and theories. The team used large cosmological simulations generated at Berkeley Lab's National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), for example, to check for errors in their measurements.

The filaments and their connections can change shape and connections over time scales of hundreds of millions of years. The competing forces of the pull of gravity and the expansion of the universe can shorten or lengthen the filaments.

"Filaments are this integral part of the cosmic web, though it's unclear what is the relationship between the underlying and the filaments," and that was a primary motivation for the study, said Simone Ferraro, one of the study's authors who is a Miller postdoctoral fellow at UC Berkeley's Center for Cosmological Physics.

New data from existing experiments, and next-generation sky surveys such as the Berkeley Lab-led Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) now under construction at Kitt Peak National Observatory in Arizona should provide even more detailed data about these filaments, he added.

Researchers noted that this important step in sleuthing the shapes and locations of filaments should also be useful for focused studies that seek to identify what types of gases inhabit the filaments, the temperatures of these gases, and the mechanisms for how particles enter and move around in the filaments. The study also allowed them to determine the length of filaments.

Siyu He said that resolving the structure can also provide clues to the properties and contents of the voids in space around the filaments, and "help with other theories that are modifications of general relativity," she said.

Ho added, "We can also maybe use these filaments to constrain dark energy – their length and width may tell us something about dark energy's parameters."

Explore further: Researchers capture first 'image' of a dark matter web that connects galaxies

More information: The detection of the imprint of filaments on cosmic microwave background lensing, Nature Astronomy (2018) doi:10.1038/s41550-018-0426-z , https://arxiv.org/abs/1709.02543

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cantdrive85
1.5 / 5 (17) Apr 10, 2018
Scientists have decoded faint distortions in the patterns of the universe's earliest light to map huge tubelike structures invisible to our eyes – known as filaments – that serve as superhighways for delivering matter to dense hubs such as galaxy clusters.

LOL! Those "tube-like" structures which deliver matter and energy throughout the Universe are electric Birkeland currents. The filamentary and cellular nature of the Universe was predicted about 80-years ago by Alfvén, and it has zilch to do with DM faerie dust.
Sol88
1.3 / 5 (16) Apr 10, 2018
Who Still Denies Electric Currents in Space?

Whydening Gyre
5 / 5 (10) Apr 10, 2018
No one denies electric currents in space. What can be argued is the proportional energetic contribution of those "electric currents". These "tubes" are NOT electric Birkeland currents. They are gravitational facsimile of Birkeland currents.
Da Schneib
5 / 5 (8) Apr 11, 2018
Now we're making maps of the filaments; this is the second article I've seen on it in the past couple months. A Japanese-led team has done much the same but their work is more accessible because of the graphics. This map goes from zero (Earth) to about z=0.7, about 9.6 billion light years. These guys here need to get a better graphic artist so we can see a semi-isometric projection and get an idea what this looks like. Ideally they'd make a solid map and then rotate it, zoom in, rotate some more, etc.

The video is nice but it's not topical; it's a simulation. Readers shouldn't get the idea that the data in the first image with the blue, violet, magenta, and red filaments is a simulation; these are actual measurements and this is real data, not a simulation.
Osiris1
1 / 5 (2) Apr 11, 2018
The universe is not only strange, but is stranger than we can imagine......Einstein. Let us suppose that there is differential expansion, where spatial density is related by the calculus of discontinuous multivariable partial differential equations of man degrees. Take supercomputer! A realllllly big one!
cantdrive85
1.7 / 5 (6) Apr 11, 2018
No one denies electric currents in space. What can be argued is the proportional energetic contribution of those "electric currents". These "tubes" are NOT electric Birkeland currents. They are gravitational facsimile of Birkeland currents.

Says "no one" denies electric currents, then does just that in favor of a hypothetical concept that requires faerie dust to make it happen. No thanks Whyde, I prefer real science to your faerie tales.
jonesdave
3.7 / 5 (9) Apr 11, 2018
Says "no one" denies electric currents, then does just that in favor of a hypothetical concept that requires faerie dust to make it happen. No thanks Whyde, I prefer real science to your faerie tales.


Nope, you prefer looks like a bunny 'science'. Show the evidence that these filaments are electric currents. They've been studied for long enough.
cantdrive85
1.6 / 5 (7) Apr 11, 2018
They have been studied for years by plasma ignoramuses such as yourself, people who believe the magnetic fields are frozen-in to the plasma. Enough said!
jonesdave
3.8 / 5 (10) Apr 11, 2018
They have been studied for years by plasma ignoramuses such as yourself, people who believe the magnetic fields are frozen-in to the plasma. Enough said!


So you've got zero evidence, nor even a mechanism for the formation of these currents. Surprise, surprise. Well, that is just pure laziness, isn't it? These authors got their data from;

Cosmic Web Reconstruction through Density Ridges: Catalogue.
Chen, Y. et al
https://arxiv.org...6443.pdf

They, in turn, used data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey:
http://adsabs.har...0100963A

That information is publicly available. Anyone can obtain it and work on it. Sadly for the EUists, they have nobody sufficiently skilled to be able to do anything with it. So they just make s*** up.
cantdrive85
1.7 / 5 (6) Apr 11, 2018
These structures are much larger - they span billions light years and whole galactic clusters and quasar groups.

It's not a problem Zephyr, plasma processes are scalable. All the way up, all the way down.
cantdrive85
2.3 / 5 (3) Apr 11, 2018
I've posted the links time and again jonesdumb, you are only blinded by your own ignorance. You're just too old to learn anymore, you have far too much BS cluttering your brain cell for there to be any additional information to be absorbed. Maybe thar's why you keep forgetting, your brain cell reinforcing the old be quickly forgetting the new. It's an old mind you have, for the short time you have left.
jonesdave
3.5 / 5 (8) Apr 11, 2018
I've posted the links time and again jonesdumb, you are only blinded by your own ignorance. You're just too old to learn anymore, you have far too much BS cluttering your brain cell for there to be any additional information to be absorbed. Maybe thar's why you keep forgetting, your brain cell reinforcing the old be quickly forgetting the new. It's an old mind you have, for the short time you have left.


What links? There are no galaxy spanning currents, they would be bleeding obvious, therefore you are lying when you say you've linked to such.
cantdrive85
1.8 / 5 (5) Apr 11, 2018
There are no galaxy spanning currents, they would be bleeding obvious,

The above researchers are finding them using the technique described, but the effects are electromagnetic as is gravity.
jonesdave
3.8 / 5 (10) Apr 11, 2018
There are no galaxy spanning currents, they would be bleeding obvious,

The above researchers are finding them using the technique described, but the effects are electromagnetic as is gravity.


Nope. Neither of those statements is true, nor is there the slightest evidence to back them up.
Whydening Gyre
5 / 5 (6) Apr 12, 2018
There are no galaxy spanning currents, they would be bleeding obvious,

The above researchers are finding them using the technique described, but the effects are electromagnetic as is gravity.

Expound on gravity being electromagnetic, please.
jonesdave
3.5 / 5 (8) Apr 12, 2018
Expound on gravity being electromagnetic, please.


Ahhh, this is likely due to the pronouncements of EU woomeister-in-chief Wal Thornhill. He has been scratching around for decades, trying to construct a universe in which his idol Velikovsky's physics defying woo is possible. Given that the laws of physics disallow such things as Venus doing handbrake turns around the solar system a week last Tuesday, possibly around the same time Earth was orbiting Saturn, then he needs to amend said laws. So, armed with his Bachelors degree in physics and computing, he is trying to convince his merry band of scientifically illiterate followers that he has done just that.
Complete bobbins, of course, but that lot will believe pretty much anything.
antialias_physorg
4 / 5 (8) Apr 12, 2018
Let us suppose that there is differential expansion, where spatial density is related by the calculus of discontinuous multivariable partial differential equations of man degrees.

You do like to string random words together in a meaningless jumble, don't you?
(Hint: A sentence should have semantics - not just syntax)
granville583762
3.7 / 5 (3) Apr 12, 2018
Darkmatter is actually matter emerging out the quantum fluctuations

Most of science believes in cosmic expansion most of the time, with is corresponding mass emerging out the quantum fluctuations. The implication as the cosmic expansion is a incremental process, mass emerging out the quantum fluctuations is proportional to the cosmic expansion radius R=2GM/C* To maintain cosmic expansion, mass continues to emerge from the quantum fluctuations, the flawed darkmatter hypotheses is actually the matter emerging out the quantum fluctuations as it has been doing for the past 15billion years.
More studies of these filaments could provide new insights about dark energy, another mystery of the universe that drives its accelerating expansion

The acceleration process is driven by mass emerging from the quantum fluctuations
granville583762
3 / 5 (4) Apr 12, 2018
Matter and the Quantum Fluctuations

This was not my idea, the blame lies fairly and squarely at the feet of who ever proposed in the primordial soup 15Billion years ago matter emerged from the quantum fluctuations as it continues to this present day!
granville583762
3.7 / 5 (3) Apr 12, 2018
Radius is defined by centre
Mathematically a centre has coordinates spatially they are just coordinates in space, the cosmic expansion has a radius and therefore a centre, but where in the vacuum of space our cosmic expansion radius is located is not the same as the coordinates of where you live like a postcode. Give the postie your postcode and he drive from any planet in the solar system to your letter box because all coordinates are relative to earth. To provide a location for our cosmic radius location you have a relative fixed point in space as the planets are relative to earth but where earth is located in the vacuum of space is same as where is the cosmic radius is located.

mass emerging out the quantum fluctuations is proportional to the cosmic expansion radius R=2GM/C
Radius is defined by center, where the center is (supposed to be)? What the M and C constants are?

granville583762
3 / 5 (4) Apr 12, 2018
Coordinates with no location
As you can see mackita you're asking a metaphysical question on coordinates without having any fixed point in the complete darkness of the infinite vacuum of space! Your asking where are we in complete darkness with no landmarks and no map which requires landmarks if you had one so a map is pointless. This is one those questions we can calculate mathematically everything that's required but were unable to give a location of comics radius
mackita> Radius is defined by centre, where the centre is (supposed to be)? What the M and C constants are?

alexander2468
4 / 5 (4) Apr 12, 2018
There's tenuous filamentary material stretching between galaxies, viewed at a distance galaxies appear honey combed, charged particles, cosmic rays, electrons any these can pass though tenuous filaments.
cantdrive85
2 / 5 (4) Apr 12, 2018
OK, so that these filaments are plasma - but what next? Just because they're is scalable, you cannot predict nothing testable from it: it's interpretative model in similar way like God hypothesis - not predictive one.

That is exactly wrong. Alfvén predicted the filamentary/cellular nature of the Universe in 1937 by applying the known properties of plasmas from laboratory research.
cantdrive85
1.8 / 5 (5) Apr 12, 2018
Expound on gravity being electromagnetic, please.

Electric gravity.
http://www.holosc...niverse/
There need be only one force in nature, a proper understanding of electromagnetism will show that gravity, strong, and weak are all derivations of EM.
jonesdave
3.5 / 5 (8) Apr 12, 2018
^^^^^^^Told you it was down to the idiot Thornhill. Of course such attempts to explain gravity electromagnetically have been made before, and are trivially shown to be wrong. Given that all we have is non-peer reviewed word salad on a crackpot website, then I think it can be safely ignored. And is.
jonesdave
3.8 / 5 (10) Apr 12, 2018
Also, as well as being pseudoscientific claptrap, the idiot Thornhill makes the claim the gravity must act instantaneously. and therefore cannot be restricted to the speed of light. The detection of GWs from a neutron star merger, along with the pretty much concurrent observation of the EM signature of the event, kill that silly argument stone dead.
691Boat
5 / 5 (6) Apr 12, 2018
Expound on gravity being electromagnetic, please.

Electric gravity.
http://www.holosc...niverse/
There need be only one force in nature, a proper understanding of electromagnetism will show that gravity, strong, and weak are all derivations of EM.


I always like how there is never any real math associated with the EU approach. It is mainly random quotes from people, the reader not knowing in what context they were speaking when the quote was delivered. I worked through Jackson's E&M book in grad school, so feel very confident in E&M theory and maths related to it, but have yet to see any worthwhile mathematical modeling of the "obvious" EU ways and how modern theory is wrong.
If the strong force is E&M, show me how a neutron and a proton bind using only E&M.
cantdrive85
1.8 / 5 (5) Apr 12, 2018
Thornhill makes the claim the gravity must act instantaneously. and therefore cannot be restricted to the speed of light.

Right, because according to GR the Earth is orbiting the Sun where it was eight minutes ago. And Pluto is orbiting the Sun where it was 5+ hours ago. So Pluto is orbiting the Sun where it was about 250k miles ago... LOL!
691Boat
5 / 5 (5) Apr 12, 2018
Thornhill makes the claim the gravity must act instantaneously. and therefore cannot be restricted to the speed of light.

Right, because according to GR the Earth is orbiting the Sun where it was eight minutes ago. And Pluto is orbiting the Sun where it was 5+ hours ago. So Pluto is orbiting the Sun where it was about 250k miles ago... LOL!


So you don't believe in systems travelling with a common velocity? Think of it as Group Velocity in E&M terms. That should be perfectly clear to you. Even if there is per your post a 250,000 mile difference with the system not travelling in unison, is Pluto's orbit perfectly circular? Does any planet perfectly orbit the Sun?
also, let's do the math per your numbers.
GR distance discrepancy: 250,000 miles
Pluto orbit diameter: 3,674,490,973 miles
GR discrepancy to orbit ratio: 0.0000680366
jonesdave
3.5 / 5 (8) Apr 12, 2018
Thornhill makes the claim the gravity must act instantaneously. and therefore cannot be restricted to the speed of light.

Right, because according to GR the Earth is orbiting the Sun where it was eight minutes ago. And Pluto is orbiting the Sun where it was 5+ hours ago. So Pluto is orbiting the Sun where it was about 250k miles ago... LOL!


Errr, it has just been proven beyond any doubt that gravity travels at the same speed as light. Try to keep up. And you would need to understand GR (which is also proven to the nth degree) to be able to understand what is going on. I would suggest starting here, and references therein:
http://math.ucr.e...eed.html

That stuff is obviously going to be so far beyond the likes of you and Thornhill, that there is little chance of dissuading you from the obvious and provably wrong nonsense you believe in. But at least try.
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (5) Apr 12, 2018
The detection of GWs from a neutron star merger, along with the pretty much concurrent observation of the EM signature

They detected the return stroke of a fart einstein let go in 1915, then used some statistical gymnastics to claim it was a GW. No fanciful ripples is "spacetime" have been detected.
jonesdave
3.7 / 5 (9) Apr 12, 2018
The detection of GWs from a neutron star merger, along with the pretty much concurrent observation of the EM signature

They detected the return stroke of a fart einstein let go in 1915, then used some statistical gymnastics to claim it was a GW. No fanciful ripples is "spacetime" have been detected.


Wrong. And yet again shows your monumental scientific illiteracy.
Whydening Gyre
5 / 5 (5) Apr 13, 2018
Expound on gravity being electromagnetic, please.

Electric gravity.
...

Oh, puh-lease...
I asked you to expound on it, not repeat it.
Please explain the mechanic of how that would work. Should be simple for someone of your well-informed expertise...
And - why do you leave out the magnetic aspect? That not relevant to your EU perspective?
alexander2468
3.4 / 5 (5) Apr 14, 2018
The filamentary galactic gravitational conduits

Electrons travelling the tenuous galactic filaments, at 9.1x10-31kg x G have gravitational acceleration, so do quarks, photons and neutrinos which make up the protons which go on to make the stars. All the listed particles travel the filamentary galactic conduits between galaxies. 0ver the life time of a typical galaxy the total galactic mass in the form of the constituents of protons pass through these galactic filamentary conduits.
The filamentary galactic conduits have the total mass of the galaxy over the life time of galaxy passing through them, being that gravity is proportional to mass; the filamentary conduits equal the total gravitational attraction of the galaxy over the life time of the galaxies.
alexander2468
3.4 / 5 (5) Apr 14, 2018
Quarks, electrons, photons, neutrinos and electromagnetism; flow through the billions of Lys of the matter of the vacuum of space.

The galactic clouds of what we call dust, are actually constituents of the proton, quarks, electron, photons, neutrinos from which any atomic particle is constructed including kaons, pions, muons as electromagnetic radiation is a phenomena of the electric charge which the quarks and electron posses. The point is the clouds of matter that permeate the vacuum of space are from their very creation in the primordial soup are always linked together however tenuous the link, as there are trillions of centrally compressed cores of matter thinning to the neighbouring core, from where the quarks, electron, photons, neutrinos flow from one cloud to next, even over billions of light years!
alexander2468
3.4 / 5 (5) Apr 14, 2018
For those in denial of electric current! We as people are one massive electric currant of quarks and electrons in spinning motion.

Electric currant is the phenomena of the electric field, the property of the quarks and electrons as the quarks and electrons have flowed through 15billion Lys of the vacuum of space, an electric charge flowing up to the speed of light is an electric currant multiplied by all the quarks and electrons the total mass the universe contains adds up to one almighty electric currant.
alexander2468
3.4 / 5 (5) Apr 14, 2018
The electric field in motion are the currants of the universe.

We are held together by electrons sharing orbits by the forces of their magnetic fields, their magnetic field comes about by the electrons spin, spinning its electric field producing the electrons magnetic field.
Whydening Gyre
5 / 5 (6) Apr 14, 2018
The electric field in motion are the currants of the universe.

hunh... In my dictionary, a currant is a raisin.
Tasty and nutritious little treats...

We are held together by electrons sharing orbits by the forces of their magnetic fields, their magnetic field comes about by the electrons spin, spinning its electric field producing the electrons magnetic field.

Well, at least you provided a response to my query of CD85. Whether I find it agreeable or not is another question...
BTW, I don't.
jonesdave
3.7 / 5 (9) Apr 14, 2018
hunh... In my dictionary, a currant is a raisin.
Tasty and nutritious little treats...


https://electroni...05256158 :)
alexander2468
3.4 / 5 (5) Apr 14, 2018
But a currant is a rasin, tasty and nutritious...
The electric field in motion are the currants of the universe.

hunh... In my dictionary, a currant is a raisin.
Tasty and nutritious little treats...

We are held together by electrons sharing orbits by the forces of their magnetic fields, their magnetic field comes about by the electrons spin, spinning its electric field producing the electrons magnetic field.

Whydening Gyre> Well, at least you provided a response to my query of CD85. Whether I find it agreeable or not is another question...
BTW, I don't.

Whydening Gyre
5 / 5 (4) Apr 14, 2018
hunh... In my dictionary, a currant is a raisin.
Tasty and nutritious little treats...


https://electroni...05256158 :)

cute. Currants do provide electrolytes, don't they?
Whydening Gyre
5 / 5 (3) Apr 14, 2018
But a currant is a rasin, tasty and nutritious...
The electric field in motion are the currants of the universe.

Go ahead and tell me you meant it that way...
What carries the electric field threw the universe? Matter, right? Tell me again how a sparsely matter populated area of space carries an electric field strong enough to effect matter transport...?
alexander2468
5 / 5 (3) Apr 14, 2018
Me personally prefer the currants in ribena, a truly electrifying refreshing drink.
Whydening Gyre> Tasty and nutritious little treats...

Whydening Gyre
5 / 5 (2) Apr 14, 2018
Me personally prefer the currants in ribena, a truly electrifying refreshing drink.
Whydening Gyre> Tasty and nutritious little treats...

Does that make you irish, french or english?
alexander2468
5 / 5 (3) Apr 14, 2018
Relativistic tasty treats in motion provide the magnetic attraction

Our universe is expanding close to the speed of light as it has taking 15billion years to travel 15billion light years the matter contained within is travelling at the same velocity providing those tasty treats sufficient velocity for magnetic fields propelling matter along the tenuous filamentary interconnecting matter.
Whydening Gyre> Well, at least you provided a response to my query of CD85. Whether I find it agreeable or not is another question...
BTW, I don't.


alexander2468
5 / 5 (4) Apr 14, 2018
being close to the isle of man a wine of irish and english extraction with a hint of french.
Me personally prefer the currants in ribena, a truly electrifying refreshing drink.
Whydening Gyre> Tasty and nutritious little treats...

Does that make you irish, french or english?

Whydening Gyre
not rated yet Apr 14, 2018
Relativistic tasty treats in motion provide the magnetic attraction

Motion does not create magnetism. "Friction" does... Charge opposition.
Our universe is expanding close to the speed of light as it has taking 15billion years to travel 15billion light years

Only the light travels at that speed.
the matter contained within is travelling at the same velocity

Nope.
providing those tasty treats sufficient velocity for magnetic fields propelling matter along the tenuous filamentary interconnecting matter.

While the fields may travel at that velocity, they are subject to inverse square like everything else. THere needs to be sufficient density of matter/mass in interactive motion and proximity to generate the magnetism, which in turn generates electricity required to aid in the push/pull of matter/mass across the universe.
alexander2468
5 / 5 (3) Apr 14, 2018
Electric, magnetic fields combined with the gravitational fields the attraction of the tenuous filimentary sub atomic particles, increases gravities range increasing the flow of matter from one cloud or galaxy to the next.
Relativistic tasty treats in motion provide the magnetic attraction

Our universe is expanding close to the speed of light as it has taking 15billion years to travel 15billion light years the matter contained within is travelling at the same velocity providing those tasty treats sufficient velocity for magnetic fields propelling matter along the tenuous filamentary interconnecting matter.
Whydening Gyre> Well, at least you provided a response to my query of CD85. Whether I find it agreeable or not is another question...
BTW, I don't.


alexander2468
5 / 5 (3) Apr 14, 2018
It is simply the the electric field of elecrons in motion in a vacuum in isolation, no friction is involved in the process produces the magnetic field.
Whydening Gyre>Motion does not create magnetism. "Friction" does... Charge opposition
alexander2468
5 / 5 (3) Apr 14, 2018
The theory behind superconductors rely on frictionless motion
Now this appears to need some digging Do electric fields need physical contact of motion producing friction producing magnetic fields when electric and magnetic fields are frictionless, the bedrock of the theory behind superconductors rely on frictionless motion
Whydening Gyre>Motion does not create magnetism. "Friction" does... Charge opposition

This is intriguing, are superconductors friction conductors maintaining continuous current flow in the absence of friction!
alexander2468
4 / 5 (4) Apr 15, 2018
Eric Laithwaite's magnetic river used in the film "The Spy who loved me" tested in the field by Sir Roger Moore!

Superconductors theory rely on frictionless motion, electrons in superconducting material is in motion in response to external magnetic field in a vacuum where its magnetic field resists the external magnetic fields, electrons flow freely and frictionless in superconductors atomic lattice where the interaction of the electrons electric field and magnet field with external fields is frictionless contact, is the force of the electrons magnetic field responding to the external magnetic field . There can be no friction between two fields as the bedrock of superconductors is frictionless motion in the atomic lattice - As a side note Eric Laithwaite's magnetic river used in the film "The Spy who loved me" relies on the friction less electric and magnetic interaction. Now not many scientists can claim to have their discoveries tested in the field by Sir Roger Moore
alexander2468
4 / 5 (4) Apr 15, 2018
Friction in electromagnetic fields in frictionless environments

Whydening Gyre:- Taking into account superconductors and testing in the field by Sir Roger Moore, James never returns any equipment he borrows from Q, making it more challenging for you to give a more complete view on motion, magnetism, electric currents in the density of matter, there interactive motion and proximity to generate the magnetism, which in turn generates electricity required to aid in the push and pull of matter across the universe and their interaction of friction in frictionless contact environments.
"Whydening Gyre> Motion does not create magnetism. "Friction" does... Charge opposition "

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