Human threats to the amphibian tree of life

March 27, 2018 by Jim Shelton, Yale University
The Manaus slender-legged tree frog (Osteocephalus taurinus), a nocturnal species in South America. Credit: Walter Jetz

A new study by researchers at Yale and George Washington University examines the human threats to the amphibian family tree and calls for a rethinking of conservation priorities to preserve species diversity and evolutionary heritage.

Amphibians represent an important bellwether of global change, scientists say, due to their particularly high sensitivity to disturbances in their environment. There are more than 7,000 amphibian on Earth, including frogs, toads, caecilians, newts, mudpuppies, and hellbenders.

"Amphibians are a globally endangered group for which threats from are outpacing our ability to safeguard species," said Walter Jetz, lead author of a paper published online March 26 in the journal Nature Ecology & Evolution. Jetz is an associate professor of ecology and evolutionary biology at Yale and director of the Yale Center for Biodiversity and Global Change.

Jetz and co-corresponding author R. Alexander Pyron of George Washington constructed the first comprehensive for nearly all amphibious species alive today. The researchers used the data to examine historical diversification patterns of amphibians as well as species' level of isolation on the family tree, also called evolutionary distinctness.

A species of the poison dart frog family (Dendrobatidae). Many poison dart frogs are now under severe threat of extinction. Credit: Walter Jetz

Amphibians are the most ancient group of terrestrial vertebrates surviving today, with origins reaching back more than 300 million years. The authors found that select members of this group alive today carry more than 100 million years of evolutionary history distinct to only them. The long, separate path of these species may have resulted in the evolution of key functions for varied ecosystems. Thanks to the early origin of the group, such highly distinct species are found in all parts of the world.

With many species still insufficiently studied in the wild to appreciate their risk of extinction or potential functions for the ecosystem, the researchers said, knowing their evolutionary distinctness and place on the family tree can provide invaluable insights. "A worldwide focus on all species allows us to link threats and across regions in a way that was not possible previously," Pyron said.

The researchers found that neither the type nor intensity of human to was associated with their evolutionary distinctness. This means there is significant potential for conservation action to mitigate the effect human activities have on the tree of life, Jetz said.

"Our evaluation provides key baseline information for all extant amphibians that may help identification of threats and prioritization of research and conservation," Jetz said. "We expect this information to be widely helpful for the large community of scientists and conservationists interested in amphibians, and to empower national and local conservation efforts."

Explore further: A global view of species diversity in high elevations, via mountain birds

More information: The interplay of past diversification and evolutionary isolation with present imperilment across the amphibian tree of life, Nature Ecology & Evolution (2018)
DOI: 10.1038/s41559-018-0515-5 , https://www.nature.com/articles/s41559-018-0515-5

Related Stories

Freezing frog cells for conservation

March 23, 2018

For the first time, Australian frog cells have been successfully frozen and re-grown in culture, offering hope of a new technique to safeguard endangered amphibians.

New VertLife project will sprout a forest of family trees

September 18, 2014

A Yale-led effort to bring "big data" to the study of biodiversity has received a $2.5 million boost, courtesy of the National Science Foundation. The grant is part of a new, Genealogy of Life program at the NSF, and will ...

Recommended for you

How quinoa plants shed excess salt and thrive in saline soils

September 21, 2018

Barely heard of a couple of years ago, quinoa today is common on European supermarket shelves. The hardy plant thrives even in saline soils. Researchers from the University of Würzburg have now determined how the plant gets ...

Basking sharks can jump as high and as fast as great whites

September 20, 2018

A collaborative team of marine biologists has discovered that basking sharks, hundreds of which are found off the shores of Ireland, Cornwall, the Isle of Man and Scotland, can jump as fast and as high out of the water as ...

Decoding the structure of an RNA-based CRISPR system

September 20, 2018

Over the past several years, CRISPR-Cas9 has moved beyond the lab bench and into the public zeitgeist. This gene-editing tool CRISPR-Cas9 holds promise for correcting defects inside individual cells and potentially healing ...

1 comment

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

betterexists
not rated yet Mar 27, 2018
WE AS INDIVIDUALS DO NOT LIVE FOR LONG.
WHY BOTHER ABOUT OTHER, That Too Dumb/USELESS ANIMALS ?

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.