Astronomers shed light on formation of black holes and galaxies

December 20, 2017, W. M. Keck Observatory
Astronomers shed light on formation of black holes and galaxies
Image of the quasar host galaxy from the UC San Diego research team’s data. The distance to this quasar galaxy is ~9.3 billion light years. The four-color image shows findings from use of the Keck Observatory and ALMA. As seen from Keck Observatory, the green colors highlight the energetic gas across the galaxy that is being illuminated by the quasar. The blue color represents powerful winds blowing throughout the galaxy. The red-orange colors represent the cold molecular gas in the system as seen from ALMA. The supermassive black hole sits at the center of the bright red-orange circular area slightly below the middle of the image. Credit: A. Vayner and team

Stars forming in galaxies appear to be influenced by the supermassive black hole at the center of the galaxy, but the mechanism of how that happens has not been clear to astronomers until now.

"Supermassive black holes are captivating," says lead author Shelley Wright, a University of California San Diego Professor of Physics. "Understanding why and how galaxies are affected by their supermassive black holes is an outstanding puzzle in their formation."

In a study published today in The Astrophysical Journal, Wright, graduate student Andrey Vayner, and their colleagues examined the energetics surrounding the powerful winds generated by the bright, vigorous supermassive black hole (known as a "quasar") at the center of the 3C 298 , located approximately 9.3 billion light years away.

"We study supermassive black holes in the very early universe when they are actively growing by accreting massive amounts of gaseous material," says Wright. "While black holes themselves do not emit light, the gaseous material they chew on is heated to extreme temperatures, making them the most luminous objects in the universe."

The UC San Diego team's research revealed that the winds blow out through the entire galaxy and impact the growth of stars.

"This is remarkable that the supermassive black hole is able to impact stars forming at such large distances," says Wright.

Today, neighboring galaxies show that the galaxy mass is tightly correlated with the supermassive black hole mass. Wright's and Vayner's research indicates that 3C 298 does not fall within this normal scaling relationship between nearby and the that lurk at their center. But, in the early universe, their study shows that the 3C 298 galaxy is 100 times less massive than it should be given its behemoth supermassive black hole mass.

This implies that the supermassive black hole mass is established well before the galaxy, and potentially the energetics from the quasar are capable of controlling the growth of the galaxy.

To conduct the study, the UC San Diego researchers utilized multiple state-of-the-art astronomical facilities. The first of these was Keck Observatory's instrument OSIRIS (OH-Suppressing Infrared Imaging Spectrograph) and its advanced adaptive optics (AO) system. An AO system allows ground-based telescopes to achieve higher quality images by correcting for the blurring caused by the Earth's atmosphere. The resulting images are as good as those obtained from space.

The second major facility was the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, known as "ALMA," an international observatory in Chile that is able to detect millimeter wavelengths using up to 66 antennae to achieve high-resolution images of the gas surrounding the quasar.

"The most enjoyable part of researching this galaxy has been putting together all the data from different wavelengths and techniques," said Vayner. "Each new dataset that we obtained on this galaxy answered one question and helped us put some of the pieces of the puzzle together. However, at the same time, it created new questions about the nature of galaxy and supermassive black hole formation."

Wright agreed, saying that the data sets were "tremendously gorgeous" from both Keck Observatory and ALMA, offering a wealth of new information about the universe.

These findings are the first results from a larger survey of distant quasars and their energetics' impact on star formation and galaxy growth. Vayner and the team will continue developing results on more using the new facilities and capabilities from Keck Observatory and ALMA.

Explore further: Supermassive black holes feed on cosmic jellyfish

More information: Andrey Vayner et al. Galactic-scale Feedback Observed in the 3C 298 Quasar Host Galaxy, The Astrophysical Journal (2017). DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aa9c42

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Tuxford
1 / 5 (3) Dec 20, 2017
Today, neighboring galaxies show that the galaxy mass is tightly correlated with the supermassive black hole mass. ... that 3C 298 does not fall within this normal scaling relationship between nearby galaxies and the supermassive black holes that lurk at their center. But, in the early universe, ... the 3C 298 galaxy is 100 times less massive than it should be given its behemoth supermassive black hole mass.
This implies that the supermassive black hole mass is established well before the galaxy, and potentially the energetics from the quasar are capable of controlling the growth of the galaxy.

How many times should I say 'I told you so!'? Here I predicted the correlation:
http://phys.org/n...ter.html
The correlation will largely hold in the 'early' OLD universe, but observational difficulties lead to under-estimating early galaxy sizes. Still, as additional new matter from the core causes growth, more recent galaxies will have grown larger.
Tuxford
1 / 5 (3) Dec 20, 2017
As the universe is actually quite old, the ratio will largely hold independent of the time observed. If this observation is in fact correct, it could be that the core has grown so active that it is in the process of dissipating the stars within the galaxy, leading to the low mass observation. Or it may just be observational difficulties at this distance.

And here the authors conclude that the egg came before the chicken! A first step to a greater understanding for the merger maniac community. And they even mentioned that the core star somehow controls the growth of the galaxy! What have I been saying??

https://phys.org/...ars.html

The time is approaching where enduring years of mockery on this board is now concluding. What say you fanatical Huge Bang fantasizers now? Do you have any real interest in understanding how you could be so wrong for so long?? I doubt it. Because the technical insight needed is not common. Ignorance is easier.
milnik
not rated yet Dec 21, 2017
This is a real proof that the examiners do not know, in general, the structure of the universe, nor know the sequence of the formation of celestial bodies.
Science must remember once and realize that there must be some substance in the infinite universe from which matter is formed, which is AETHER. Quasars and black holes have nothing in common. The quasar is made up of a magnet (quark gluon plasma), followed by a pulsar (light emission), a neutron star, followed by a supernova and when it explodes forms chemical elements, dressing gases, stars like sun and planets and so on. Black holes are formed when gravity is formed (gravity) and mass and gravity is i9 when the mass is transformed into the form of Aether from which it originated.

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