Research demonstrates method to alter coherence of light

October 18, 2017
Young's double slits with micrometer distances can make incoherent light coherent and vice versa. Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) excited at each slit can be used to mix the random fluctuations of the incident electromagnetic fields at the two slit locations. Credit: Pacifici Lab / Brown University

Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light.

In a paper published in the journal Science Advances, the researchers show that they can use —propagating confined at a metal-dielectric interface—to transform light from completely incoherent to almost fully coherent and vice versa. The ability to modulate could be useful in a wide variety of applications from structural coloration and optical communication to beam shaping and microscopic imaging.

"There had been some theoretical work suggesting that coherence modulation was possible, and some experimental results showing small amounts of modulation," said Dongfang Li, a postdoctoral researcher in Brown's School of Engineering and the study's lead author. "But this is the first time very strong modulation of coherence has been realized experimentally."

Coherence deals with the extent to which propagating electromagnetic waves are correlated with each other. Lasers, for example, emit light that's highly coherent, meaning the waves are strongly correlated. The sun and emit weakly correlated waves, which are generally said to be "incoherent", although, more precisely, they are characterized by low yet measurable degrees of coherence.

"Coherence, like color and polarization, is a fundamental property of light," said Domenico Pacifici, an associate professor of engineering and physics at Brown and coauthor of the research. "We have filters that can manipulate the color of light and we have things like polarizing sunglasses that can manipulate polarization. The goal with this work was to find a way to manipulate coherence like we can these other properties."

To do that, Li and Pacifici took a classic experiment used to measure coherence, Young's double slit, and turned it into a device that can modulate coherence of light by controlling and finely tuning the interactions between light and electrons in metal films.

In the classic , an opaque barrier is placed between a light source and a detector. The light passes through two parallel slits in the barrier to reach the detector on the other side. If the light shown on the barrier is coherent, the rays emanating from the slits will interfere with each other, creating an interference pattern on the detector—a series of bright and dark bands called interference fringes. The extent to which the light is coherent can be measured by the intensity of bands. If the light is incoherent, no bands will be visible.

"As this is normally done, the double-slit experiment simply measures the coherence of light rather than changing it," Pacifici said. "But by introducing surface plasmon polaritons, Young's double slits become a tool not just for measurement but also modulation."

To do that, the researchers used a thin metal film as the barrier in the . When the light strikes the film, surface plasmon polaritons—ripples of electron density created when the electrons are excited by light—are generated at each slit and propagate toward the opposite slit.

"The surface plasmon polaritons open up a channel for the light at each slit to talk to each other," Li said. "By connecting the two, we're able to change the mutual correlations between them and therefore change the coherence of light."

In essence, surface plasmon polaritons are able to create correlation where there was none, or to cancel any existing correlation that was there, depending on the nature of the light coming in and the distance between the slits.

One of the study's key results is the strength of the modulation they achieved. The technique is able to modulate coherence across a range from 0 percent (totally incoherent) to 80 percent (nearly full coherent). Modulation of such strength has never been achieved before, the researchers say, and it was made possible by using nanofabrication methods that allowed to maximize the generation efficiencies of surface plasmon polaritons existing on both surfaces of the slitted screen.

This initial proof-of-concept work was done at the micrometer scale, but Pacifici and Li say there's no reason why this couldn't be scaled up for use in a variety of settings.

"We've broken a barrier in showing that it's possible to do this," Pacifici said. "This clears the way for new two-dimensional beam shapers, filters and lenses that can manipulate entire optical beams by using the coherence of as a powerful tuning knob."

Explore further: Researchers make better sense of incoherent light

More information: "Strong amplitude and phase modulation of optical spatial coherence with surface plasmon polaritons" Science Advances (2017). advances.sciencemag.org/content/3/10/e1700133

Related Stories

Researchers make better sense of incoherent light

September 16, 2016

One of the differences between lasers and desk lamps is that laser light is spatially coherent, meaning the peaks and valleys of the light waves are correlated with each other. The jumbled, uncorrelated waves coming from ...

Experimental method measures robustness of quantum coherence

July 27, 2017

Researchers at the UAB have come up with a method to measure the strength of the superposition coherence in any given quantum state. The method, published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society A, is based on the ...

Advance could aid development of nanoscale biosensors

February 16, 2016

Imagine a hand-held environmental sensor that can instantly test water for lead, E. coli, and pesticides all at the same time, or a biosensor that can perform a complete blood workup from just a single drop. That's the promise ...

On a wire or in a fiber, a wave is a wave

July 13, 2007

In an experiment modeled on the classic “Young’s double slit experiment” and published in the journal Nature Nanotechnology, researchers have powerfully reinforced the understanding that surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) ...

Coherence of Raman light arises from disorder

February 13, 2017

Light propagation in disordered materials is a topic of great interest for the scientific community, with applications in the fields of photonics and renewable energies and the discovery of fascinating new phenomena related ...

Recommended for you

Single-photon detector can count to four

December 15, 2017

Engineers have shown that a widely used method of detecting single photons can also count the presence of at least four photons at a time. The researchers say this discovery will unlock new capabilities in physics labs working ...

Complete design of a silicon quantum computer chip unveiled

December 15, 2017

Research teams all over the world are exploring different ways to design a working computing chip that can integrate quantum interactions. Now, UNSW engineers believe they have cracked the problem, reimagining the silicon ...

A shoe-box-sized chemical detector

December 15, 2017

A chemical sensor prototype developed at the University of Michigan will be able to detect "single-fingerprint quantities" of substances from a distance of more than 100 feet away, and its developers are working to shrink ...

Real-time observation of collective quantum modes

December 15, 2017

A cylindrical rod is rotationally symmetric - after any arbitrary rotation around its axis it always looks the same. If an increasingly large force is applied to it in the longitudinal direction, however, it will eventually ...

2 comments

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

big_hairy_jimbo
not rated yet Oct 18, 2017
I think in time, the mysteries surrounding the double slit experiment, and a lot about the universe, will be explained by fields interacting with fields. The polariton is such an example. My personal mental picture of what is happening is that the incoming EM field (light beam) interacts with the atoms, hence electrons, causing the EM field to give it's energy to the electrons (electric field). This creates a feedback loop, or resonance throughout the lattice that makes up the atoms of the double slit. The electric fields of the electrons undergo superposition. Some of this electric field stimulates EM field, and some EM field stimulates electric field. The result is mostly observed on the surface of the material used for the double slit (though is occurring throughout the material). The output EM field is a result of the surface electric fields, or POLARITONS. This is how a single photon SEEMS to go through BOTH slits at the same time. Photon - Polariton - Photon
RealityCheck
1 / 5 (2) Oct 19, 2017
@big_hairy_jimbo.

It's good to see you (and, finally, mainstream researchers/theorists) realizing what I have been pointing out for decades now re slit/groove/edge/pinhole/interferometer etc 'quantum scale' experiments/physics theories/interpretations. You are getting very close to the real explanation for all the 'detector screen' and 'light recombination' observations/outcomes from these experiments, @bhj.

For your/others' FYI I link (below) a couple of the more recent PO discussion threads where I again pointed out the KNOWN SCIENCE re 'plasmon sea' effects/processes that produce the results observed; thus obviating he 'need' for all that 'spooky quantum mysteries' metaphysics crap which has been 'doing the professional rounds' in lieu of actual real physics.

Links:

https://phys.org/...ent.html
https://phys.org/...lit.html

Note the gang of trolling/bot-voting ignoramuses being ignoramuses. :)

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.