Laser beams for superconductivity: Research sheds light on unexpected physical phenomena

October 25, 2017, International School of Advanced Studies (SISSA)
Credit: ORNL

A laser pulse, a special material, an extraordinary property which appears inexplicably. These are the main elements that emerge from a research conducted by an international team, coordinated by Michele Fabrizio and comprising Andrea Nava and Erio Tosatti from SISSA, Claudio Giannetti from the Università Cattolica di Brescia and Antoine Georges from the Collège de France. The results of their study have recently been published in the journal Nature Physics. The key element of the study is a compound of the most symmetrical molecule that exists in Nature, namely C60 bucky-ball, a spherical fullerene.

It is well known that this compound, with the chemical formula K3C60, can behave as a superconductor - that is, conduct without dissipating energy - below a critical temperature of 20 degrees Kelvin, i.e. around -253 degrees Celsius.

It has recently been discovered that K3C60 is capable of transforming into a high-temperature superconductor when struck by an extremely brief laser pulse. This material takes on superconductive properties - albeit extremely briefly - up to a temperature of -73 degrees Centigrade, almost 100 degrees above the critical equilibrium temperature. The research just published by the scientists explains the reason for this mysterious behaviour.

K3C60 is a compound in which purely molecular features coexist alongside metallic properties, a characteristic shared by so-called "strongly correlated" materials. According to the theory developed by the researchers in this study, the laser beam creates a high-energy molecular excitation, yet in order to do so it must absorb heat from the low-energy metallic component, which thus cools. As it is specifically the metallic component involved in conduction, its cooling may lead to a superconductivity phase despite the external temperature is higher than the .

As the researchers explain: "It is an example of laser cooling, yet with a new operating mechanism which had never been proposed until now. The fact that the pulse can transiently change the characteristics of a material is a significant observation. It may offer the prospect of manufacturing electronic devices whose properties change with the use of light, as if it were a switch. Indeed, the ultra-rapid control of materials with light sources is of great current interest for the scientific community and for the possible technological ramifications of these applications."

Explore further: Laser pulses reveal the superconductors of the future

More information: Andrea Nava et al, Cooling quasiparticles in A 3C 60 fullerides by excitonic mid-infrared absorption, Nature Physics (2017). DOI: 10.1038/nphys4288

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Sonhouse
1 / 5 (1) Oct 25, 2017
How fast are the changes? Picoseconds? Attoseconds?
KelDude
not rated yet Oct 26, 2017
Very nice to see the use of Celsius only temperatures in this article. Usually there is a Fahrenheit temperature indicated in brackets for the lowly US readers, the only country in the world still using the Fahrenheit temperature scale. Interestingly though, there is also the incorrect usage of the word Centigrade instead of Celsius. Still it's old school Fahrenheit numbers for the US readers that irk me the most in science articles.

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