A new look at the nature of dark matter

March 6, 2017
The microlensing object in the foreground galaxy could be a star (as depicted), a primordial black hole, or any other compact object. Credit: NASA/Jason Cowan (Astronomy Technology Center).

The nature of the dark matter which apparently makes up 80% of the mass of the particles in the universe is still one of the great unsolved mysteries of present day sciences. The lack of experimental evidence, which could allow us to identify it with one or other of the new elementary particles predicted by the theorists, as well as the recent discovery of gravitational waves coming from the merging of two black holes (with masses some 30 times that of the Sun) by LIGO the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory) have revived interest in the possibility that dark matter might take the form of primordial black holes with masses between 10 and 1000 times that of the Sun.

Primordial , which would have originated in high density fluctuations of matter during the first moments of the Universe, are in principle very interesting. As opposed to those which form from stars, whose abundance and masses are limited by models of stellar formation and evolution, could exist with a wide range of masses and abundances. They would be found in the halos of galaxies, and the occasional meeting between two of them having masses 30 times that of the Sun, followed by a subsequent merger, might have given rise to the detected by LIGO.

"Microlensing effect"

If there were an appreciable number of black holes in the halos of galaxies, some of them intercept the light coming towards us from a distant quasar. Because of their strong gravitational fields, their gravity could concentrate the rays of light, and cause an increase in the apparent brightness of the quasar. This effect, known as "" is bigger the bigger the mass of the black hole, and the probability of detecting it would be bigger the more the presence of these black holes. So although the black holes themselves cannot be directly detected, they would be detected by increases in the brightness of observed quasars.

On this assumption, a group of scientists has used the microlensing effect on quasars to estimate the numbers of primordial black holes of intermediate mass in galaxies. The study, led by the researcher at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) and the University of La Laguna (ULL), Evencio Mediavilla Gradolph, shows that normal stars like the Sun cause the microlensing effects, thus ruling out the existence of a large population of primordial black holes with intermediate mass.

Computer simulations

Using computer simulations, they have compared the rise in brightness, in visible light and in X-rays, of 24 distant quasars with the values predicted by the microlensing effect. They have found that the strength of the effect is relatively low, as would be expected from objects with a mass between 0.05 and 0.45 times that of the Sun, and well below that of intermediate mass black holes. In addition they have estimated that these microlenses form roughly 20% of the total mass of a galaxy, equivalent to the mass expected to be found in stars. So their results show that, with high probability, it is normal stars and not primordial intermediate mass black holes which are responsible for the observed microlensing.

"This study implies "says Evencio Mediavilla, "that it is not at all probable that black holes with masses between 10 and 100 times the mass of the Sun make up a significant fraction of the ". For that reason the black holes whose merging was detected by LIGO were probably formed by the collapse of stars, and were not primordial black holes".

Astronomers participating in this research include Jorge Jiménez-Vicente and José Calderón-Infante (University of Granada) and José A. Muñoz Lozano, and Héctor Vives-Arias, (University of Valencia).

Explore further: Did the LIGO gravitational waves originate from primordial black holes?

More information: E. Mediavilla et al, Limits on the Mass and Abundance of Primordial Black Holes from Quasar Gravitational Microlensing, The Astrophysical Journal (2017). DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aa5dab

Related Stories

Did gravitational wave detector find dark matter?

June 15, 2016

When an astronomical observatory detected two black holes colliding in deep space, scientists celebrated confirmation of Einstein's prediction of gravitational waves. A team of astrophysicists wondered something else: Had ...

How much of the universe is black holes?

June 17, 2014

We all fear black holes, but how many of them are there out there, really? Between the stellar mass black holes and the supermassive ones, just how much of our Universe is black holes?

What happens when black holes collide?

October 5, 2016

The sign of a truly great scientific theory is by the outcomes it predicts when you run experiments or perform observations. And one of the greatest theories ever proposed was the concept of Relativity, described by Albert ...

Recommended for you

Dawn mission extended at Ceres

October 20, 2017

NASA has authorized a second extension of the Dawn mission at Ceres, the largest object in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. During this extension, the spacecraft will descend to lower altitudes than ever before ...

24 comments

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

cantdrive85
1.4 / 5 (9) Mar 06, 2017
Say it ain't so, more evidence which casts further doubt on the existence of faerie dust.
RNP
5 / 5 (8) Mar 06, 2017
@cantdrive85
Say it ain't so, more evidence which casts further doubt on the existence of faerie dust.

I am afraid that you have not understood the article/paper.

The paper presents evidence that the DM effect is not the result of multitudes of 10-1000 solar mass black holes. It in no way suggests that it does not exist.
antialias_physorg
5 / 5 (9) Mar 06, 2017
Say it ain't so, more evidence which casts further doubt on the existence of faerie dust.

Um...I think you didn't understand what the article says.

(On second thought: why should that surprise me?)
RNP
5 / 5 (7) Mar 06, 2017
@antialias_physorg
Say it ain't so, more evidence which casts further doubt on the existence of faerie dust.

Um...I think you didn't understand what the article says.

(On second thought: why should that surprise me?)


SNAP! But, we should not really have to point it out.
antialias_physorg
5 / 5 (6) Mar 06, 2017
Well, I figured that if he didn't understand the article he might benefit from some serious pointing out (in big neon letters) on that score, too ;)

...and you beat me to it by a couple of seconds *waves fist*

Mark Thomas
5 / 5 (7) Mar 06, 2017
Hey cantdrive85, the first part of reading comprehension is reading.

Regarding the article, I had hoped primordial black holes were playing a larger role in this because new particles/new something would not be required to explain dark matter, but it is what it is.
Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (6) Mar 06, 2017
Say it ain't so, more evidence which casts further doubt on the existence of faerie dust.

perhaps this will help you: http://www.readingbear.org/

brendafoley2309
Mar 06, 2017
This comment has been removed by a moderator.
archytype_net
1.6 / 5 (7) Mar 06, 2017
Yeah, black holes are not dark matter or dark energy.
the so called missing mass is not missing at all. It's there in the space between all astronomical objects!
I think electric fields go a long way to better explaining the observed phenomenon of the universe. There is so much we do not understand about magnetism and electric fields it behooves us to fully explore it.
nikola_milovic_378
1 / 5 (2) Mar 06, 2017
Why did no one in the scientific community does not think about ETER substances, which fills infinite universe, and from this ether is formed of matter and various energy substances. Ether may "irritate" the strong magnetic fields, electrical charge and higher speeds of movement of matter through the ether. When the matter moves through the ether, then the ether passes through subatomic particles, where the reactions occur between ether and matter. Gluons of substances causing an increase in magnetism, and quarks, electrons and positrons causing an increase in gravity. This situation leads to the formation of new particles that influence the formation of transient effects such as various lighting effects with different wavelengths and frequencies, and thus the disorder and changes with Lensing and displacement and blue and red.
In the universe there is nothing dark, there is only the unknown and invisible to our capabilities.
nikola_milovic_378
1 / 5 (2) Mar 06, 2017
Why did no one in the scientific community does not think about ETER substances, which fills infinite universe, and from this ether is formed of matter and various energy substances. Ether may "irritate" the strong magnetic fields, electrical charge and higher speeds of movement of matter through the ether. When the matter moves through the ether, then the ether passes through subatomic particles, where the reactions occur between ether and matter. Gluons of substances causing an increase in magnetism, and quarks, electrons and positrons causing an increase in gravity. This situation leads to the formation of new particles that influence the formation of transient effects such as various lighting effects with different wavelengths and frequencies, and thus the disorder and changes with Lensing and displacement and blue and red.
In the universe there is nothing dark, there is only the unknown and invisible to our capabilities.
Hyperfuzzy
1 / 5 (3) Mar 06, 2017
Please give me better logic. There is no gravitational lensing, either the light has passed through a media or it hasn't. Consider a truth we may travel faster than light. Simple proof of the speed of light, the emitted wavelength divided by the measured period gives the relative speed to you and may + or - for V. Therefore some light we receive may have been emitted from the opposite direction, i.e. we move upon the wave-front from behind. This suggest the distortions from our local galaxy group at a very far flung history. Timing to be defined by making reasonable interpretation of what we see. So we do not know proper physics. juz say'n
Hyperfuzzy
1 / 5 (2) Mar 06, 2017
The only things in the universe are diametrical spherical fields with q defined as existing from it's center to infinity and update relative to its center at the speed of light.

So we are approaching truth through our errors, I like to define time as c=1, then the same order of magnitude in spatial units is equivalent to the same magnitude in time. Any increment can be calculated from simulation. Each "Ply" may be placed onto another, either at a calculated equilibrium point or allow it to show stability or instability. This can be solved absolutely.
Hyperfuzzy
1 / 5 (2) Mar 06, 2017
So no dark matter, the measure is in error!
fulely
1 / 5 (3) Mar 07, 2017
Dark matter produces dark energy... Antihydrogen fusion builds antihelium and liquid oxygen, Its now trapped in a 12 foot ringed disc converting the antihelium to light in the design of the Fibonacci spiral. This "Light" blends into the existing background photon appearing dark or unseen. After burning thru the antihelium its thermodynamically returned to our dimension as a atmospheric sprite producing terrestrial gamma rays making earths are water and ionosphere. This energy "Relativistic Perturbation Mantle" flows the the newly discovered "Plasma Tubes" surrounding earth. This is how planets like earth make the magnetic field lines thru space. This is witnessed during NASA research projects caught on video as it returns to our dimension releasing liquid oxygen and antihelium/ anti hydrogen . All data is NASA Fermi satellite and Italian space agency PAMELA during atmospheric sprite research. Earths ionosphere was created from the inside out. rpmantle.com
antialias_physorg
5 / 5 (2) Mar 07, 2017
Dark matter produces dark energy

No. The two concepts aren't related.
Antihydrogen fusion builds antihelium and liquid oxygen

No. Antihydrogen fusion does not build liquid oxygen in any way, shape or form. Whatever gave you that idea?

Its now trapped in a 12 foot ringed disc converting the antihelium to light in the design of the Fibonacci spiral. This "Light" blends into the existing background photon appearing dark or unseen....

OK, the first two sentences were just stupid. Now you're going for full tilt crazy. The rest of your post is really so far over the insanity horizon you should seek out a therapist.
As soon as possible.
Hyperfuzzy
1 / 5 (2) Mar 07, 2017
False premise! You may be absolutely correct in some logics but not the Formal Logic, juz say'n
Hyperfuzzy
1 / 5 (2) Mar 07, 2017
Dark matter produces dark energy...

If what you say is true then you are using the wrong names of things. It's kind of hard to see where you're going with not knowing a thing to describe the thing. Anyway, try Maxwell. He collected a set of truths. The best is charge, diametrical spherical fields, updated relative to its center at the speed of light. We only see the updates. That's all there is!
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (3) Mar 07, 2017
Say it ain't so, more evidence which casts further doubt on the existence of faerie dust.

Um...I think you didn't understand what the article says.

(On second thought: why should that surprise me?)


Black holes, primordial or otherwise, are in the faerie dust category, no need to be surprised.
nikola_milovic_378
1 / 5 (1) Mar 07, 2017
If you want to know how it behaves matter and energy, which are formed of matter, we must know how fundamental particles are formed from the ether that fills infinite universe. Matter has only three particles:
3kg (3 quarks and gluons 3, united), the electron and positron. And the energy is obtained from gluons. Gluon resulting annihilation of electrons and positrons.
When a positron enters 3kg particle, resulting proton and antiproton, when the electron enters 3kg. So there is something special that we would consider that to antimatter. She's not stable, nor is it ever existed. When you enter 3kg gluon provided the neutron.
All that "anti", causing electrons and positrons, which are included in 3kg parcel. This can be achieved by the people. How is hydrogen?
nikola_milovic_378
1 / 5 (1) Mar 07, 2017
When you enter 3kg positron (from decomposed gluons) and the electron begins to circulate around the proton, in order to maintain the equilibrium state of electrons and positrons.
What is fusion? If you want two elements to form a third, or to get out of this reaction get energy without explosions (fission). How? This science is not yet understood and tried the wrong way to go about it in a tokamak devices, but so far without success. Perhaps I could explain to them how to achieve that much easier.
Hyperfuzzy
1 / 5 (1) Mar 07, 2017
If you want to know how it behaves matter and energy, which are formed of matter, we must know how fundamental particles are formed from the ether that fills infinite universe. Matter has only three particles:
3kg (3 quarks and gluons 3, united), the electron and positron. And the energy is obtained from gluons. Gluon resulting annihilation of electrons and positrons.
When a positron enters 3kg particle, resulting proton and antiproton, when the electron enters 3kg. So there is something special that we would consider that to antimatter. She's not stable, nor is it ever existed. When you enter 3kg gluon provided the neutron.
All that "anti", causing electrons and positrons, which are included in 3kg parcel. This can be achieved by the people. How is hydrogen?

there are no particles
nikola_milovic_378
not rated yet Apr 09, 2017
Hjperfuzzy,
Your name indicates that there are no particles, because you have all these particles merged into something unknown and invisible.
Hyperfuzzy
not rated yet Apr 09, 2017
Hjperfuzzy,
Your name indicates that there are no particles, because you have all these particles merged into something unknown and invisible.

Excuse me. I coined the name when working on a roll control for a hypersonic vehicle. Had no body function from uncle. So showed controls for a worst case, a flexible wing aircraft. I using a fuzzy control; hence, HyperFuzzy. Try proving the existence of a particle using a causal physics instead of your ignorance of the invisible. Dude, the article is about your unknown and invisible. I'm trying to give clarity! WTF?

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.