Einstein's Cross under the gravitational microlens

December 23, 2015, Asociacion RUVID

A Spanish research team has obtained measurements for the innermost region of a disc of matter in orbital motion around a supermassive black hole in the quasar known as Einstein's Cross (Q2237-0305). It constitutes the most precise set of measurements achieved to date for such a small and distant object.

Typically, astronomers can only detect bright objects that emit a lot of light, or large objects blocking background light. Microlensing is used to study objects that emit little or no light, or are too far away to be detected any other way. Light traveling from the bends around other objects lying directly between it and the observer, redirected by their gravitational fields. This leads to distorted, brightened and magnified images of the distant object which, when studied over time, can be reconciled to give a more complete picture. The in the foreground essentially acts as a kind of lens, magnifying our view of very distant objects, like and regions within them.

At the edge of a black hole

Quasars are very small, very distant objects that emit vast amounts of light. Their energy comes from mass falling onto the , a disc of matter swirling extremely fast around a massive central body; in the case of quasars, around a supermassive black hole. Q2237-0305's accretion disc is comparable to the size of our solar system, but it is so far away that it has only been possible to measure its structure via microlensing.

By studying the variation in brightness of the four different images of the disc (the four points of the 'cross') provided by OGLE and GLITP gravitational microlensing projects, which have had their lenses trained on Einstein's Cross for over a decade, researchers have been able to obtain of a structure at its innermost region, right at the edge of the black hole event horizon.

Over recent years we have shown how microlensing allows us to analyse the structure of accretion discs in quasars, and now we have obtained precise measurements for a structure right at the innermost rim, potentially the last stable orbit before the black hole event horizon", explains José Antonio Muñoz, lecturer at the Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics at the Universitat de València, who took part in this research alongside colleagues at the universities of Granada, Cadiz and the Canary Islands Astrophysics Institute.

His colleague, Jorge Jiménez Vicente, at the University of Granada adds that, "the big breakthrough here is that we have been able to do this for such a small disc, so far away – it is like being able to detect a one euro coin located over 100,000 kilometres away".

Currently only one in every 500 quasars can be measured in this way, since the alignment of the 'lens' and study objects must be very precise and is difficult to predict. However, Jiménez Vicente points to a future, when large-scale monitoring programs (like the 8.4 metre Large Synoptic Survey Telescope planned for northern Chile by 2022) are up-and-running, where "the detection of high magnification microlensing events like this one will be possible for thousands of quasars". This will open up a unique window onto the innermost edges of supermassive in quasars, allowing researchers to gain a deeper understanding of this phenomenon and unlock the secrets to the formation and evolution of galaxies.

Explore further: Black holes could grow as large as 50 billion suns before their food crumbles into stars according to research

More information: Resolving the Innermost Region of the Accretion Disk of the Lensed Quasar Q2237+0305 Through Gravitational Microlensing. iopscience.iop.org/article/10. … /2041-8205/814/2/L26

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indio007
2.2 / 5 (21) Dec 23, 2015
Stopped reading here.
"The main contributor to the gravitational field of the lens galaxy is the smoothly distributed dark matter."
Benni
2.5 / 5 (28) Dec 23, 2015
The main contributor to the gravitational field of the lens galaxy is the smoothly distributed dark matter.


The DM gods are responsible for almost everything, including the "cross" of the micro-lens.
my2cts
3.7 / 5 (28) Dec 23, 2015
You two morons do not have any explanation yourself.
Benni
2.7 / 5 (25) Dec 23, 2015
You two morons do not have any explanation yourself.


Please, put me on your Ignore. I just get so weary of the disciples of the Dark Matter gods complaining that I won't accept their "faith" in the "unseen".
Protoplasmix
4.8 / 5 (25) Dec 23, 2015
Stopped reading here.
"The main contributor to the gravitational field of the lens galaxy is the smoothly distributed dark matter."
Too bad for you. Because the very next sentence states, "But there are also compact sources (stars and their remnants) that locally break the smoothness of the gravitational field and split each image of the quasar in several micro images." And it only gets more interesting after that. The one and only mention of dark matter was to say it's not even an issue (because it's smoothly distributed), and that was all it took to close your mind. Pretty weak. Your loss.
Zzzzzzzz
3.6 / 5 (25) Dec 23, 2015
Amazing how much better this site looks since I added BS and Benni to my ignore list.....
Benni
2.7 / 5 (20) Dec 23, 2015
The one and only mention of dark matter was to say it's not even an issue (because it's smoothly distributed)


This is completely contrary to what your godfather Zwicky hypothesized about DM. He contrarily stated it would only be found in an envelope enshrouding Spiral Galaxies, and "envelope" is not a description of being "smoothly distributed", or if you imagine it is, post the section of Zwicky's dissertation where he makes such a statement.
Benni
2.6 / 5 (18) Dec 23, 2015
December 23, 2015, 3:34 pm 1 Uncle Ira


Terrific, Ira knows where it is. Clue us in.

Uncle Ira
4.3 / 5 (22) Dec 23, 2015
@ Bennie-Skippy. Where you at and how you are Cher? I'm still fit like a Cajun fiddle me, thanks for asking.

December 23, 2015, 3:34 pm 1 Uncle Ira


Terrific, Ira knows where it is. Clue us in.


It is in the book that tells about how he tried to get his night-assistant-Skippy to choot a gun through the telescope slit opening thing. He had a theory that the concussion of the gunshot would help settle the air one night when he was having the bad seeing due to the air making his images jiggling around.

What? You think you are the only person who read some stuffs about Zwicky-Skippy and the other Skippys too?
my2cts
3.4 / 5 (17) Dec 23, 2015
You two morons do not have any explanation yourself.


Please, put me on your Ignore. I just get so weary of the disciples of the Dark Matter gods complaining that I won't accept their "faith" in the "unseen".


Especially that idiot. Homer Simpson has a better grasp on reality.

Hi Rambo the Dunning Kruger King.
You found a friend in psycho benni, that is cute.
The Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy of physics.
bs, you clown, say something totally wrong about physics to amuse me or you'll be on ignore too.
my2cts
3.4 / 5 (15) Dec 23, 2015
Amazing how much better this site looks since I added BS and Benni to my ignore list.....

Indio belongs there too, as well as witchfinder general DavidW.
Steve 200mph Cruiz
4.5 / 5 (15) Dec 24, 2015
You guys don't understand relativity.
Actually understand what the Einstein field equations are, and I mean go to YouTube and watch somebody write them out for 3 hours, then you'll understand why dark matter is measured to be there
gkam
2.6 / 5 (20) Dec 26, 2015
I still think dark matter is extradimensional mass.
gkam
2.8 / 5 (18) Dec 27, 2015
No, David, I mean mass in an adjacent dimension. String Theory says we have ten dimensions. Where are they? What is in them? Is Gravity weak because it leaks through the dimensions?
TheGhostofOtto1923
2.5 / 5 (21) Dec 27, 2015
I still think dark matter is extradimensional mass.
You still think that H2 explosions can cause dirty molten Pu puddles to fission causing fukushima debris to be thrown 130km even though conventional thermonuke explosives cant throw it more than a few km.

Such is the extent of your knowledge of physics.
gkam
2.8 / 5 (18) Dec 27, 2015
Tell us all about how you earned the Order of the British Empire.
AGreatWhopper
2.7 / 5 (12) Dec 27, 2015
You two morons do not have any explanation yourself.


benni-jerk-off said: Please, put me on your Ignore. I just get so weary of the disciples of the Dark Matter gods complaining that I won't accept their "faith" in the "unseen".


We get weary of your ignorant rantings. YOU disable java script and pretend there are no comments. Yeah, the evidence of physical measurements you call faith, but belief in a ass-fucking sky daddy you call a virtue. You're the ignorant faith fodder.

Are they really so lame that when they banned Zephir they left one of his sock puppets?
AGreatWhopper
3 / 5 (14) Dec 27, 2015
Why is it that the biggest losers, like DavidW, are so in love with the sound of their own voice??? Look at the amount of CRAP he writes. Do these cranks not realize how they trumpet their inadequacies when they make trolling PO the pinnacle of their existence?

And no, David, soiling towels is not an accomplishment.
antigoresockpuppet
2.8 / 5 (13) Dec 27, 2015
DavidW 1.7 /5 (6) 5 hours ago

Love the truth and you live if hit.


There's a consolation! Guess you won't be living long.
MalleusConspiratori
3.2 / 5 (11) Dec 27, 2015
Zzzzzzzz 4.3 /5 (17) Dec 23, 2015
Amazing how much better this site looks since I added BS and Benni to my ignore list.....


Why can't the site just disable the accounts of the perennial 1 point something losers? I mean, if you have hundreds of posts and your average is 1 point something doesn't that scream "public nuisance"? And the worst part is that's exactly what they set out to be. Traction at last! Now, if they could just get the gumption up to crawl out of Mama's basement.
Vietvet
4.2 / 5 (10) Dec 27, 2015

Physicist, Nobel Prize winner 1921

The latest indications we have suggest that Einstein was vegetarian only for the last year or so of his life, though he appears to have supported the idea for many years before practising it himself.

"So I am living without fats, without meat, without fish, but am feeling quite well this way. It always seems to me that man was not born to be a carnivore."

This was from a letter written to Hans Muehsam, and dated March 30, 1954, which was about 1 year before Einstein died. This indicates he adopted a vegetarian diet at the end of his life. Previously, on August3, 1953 Einstein had written the following in a letter to Max Kariel, suggesting that he was still eating meat at that time:

"I have always eaten animal flesh with a somewhat guilty conscience."
- Einstein Archive 60-058

http://www.ivu.or...ein.html

It's not as cut-and-dried as DavidW suggests.
AGreatWhopper
2.7 / 5 (14) Dec 27, 2015
DavidWankoff 1 /5 (2) 42 minutes ago
It's all of you that need to shut your traps and get some humility


Ah, not an English speaker. Instead of using Google translate, maybe you should try posting to a site where you speak the language. Oh, right. Sites that aren't running a scam delete people like you.

And false humility is arrogant. Facts are facts and the fact is that I'm retired and independently wealthy at 45, have an IQ of 156, two doctorates and four bachelor's degrees, a perfect wife, do exactly as I please and will end it all if any of the above ever change substantially. What, exactly, am I supposed to be humble about? Oh, you mean the "don't rub my nose in the fact that I'm a piece of shite" kind of humility. That's not humility. That's molly-coddling and I don't suffer fools, gladly or otherwise.
Whydening Gyre
4.6 / 5 (9) Dec 27, 2015
And false humility is arrogant. Facts are facts and the fact is that I'm retired and independently wealthy at 45, have an IQ of 156, two doctorates and four bachelor's degrees, a perfect wife, do exactly as I please and will end it all if any of the above ever change substantially. What, exactly, am I supposed to be humble about?

Hey Whopper! Me, too!
Except for the fact that;
I'm 61, still workin my ass off (be an artist - you, too, could make 50-100 dollars a week), have no degrees, only 150 IQ, have a post menopausal wife (thankfully, with a couple of potential young future ones) and do pretty much what the man (er-woman) tells me -
We could be twins!
Have your people call my people - we'll do lunch...:-)
Whydening Gyre
4.5 / 5 (8) Dec 27, 2015

The latest indications we have suggest that Einstein was vegetarian only for the last year or so of his life, though he appears to have supported the idea for many years before practising it himself.

What if... that was WHY it was the last year of his life...?
Whydening Gyre
4.6 / 5 (9) Dec 27, 2015
I still think dark matter is extradimensional mass.

Gkam
Until I see more evidence of that (which, I'm bettin', won't be anytime soon), I'm stickin' with "undiscovered" or "unobserved" mass.
gkam
1.5 / 5 (12) Dec 27, 2015
WG, what if it's the source of Perot's "giant sucking sound"?
Whydening Gyre
4.4 / 5 (7) Dec 27, 2015
WG, what if it's the source of Perot's "giant sucking sound"?

Hunh??
Ross Perot?
gkam
1.3 / 5 (12) Dec 28, 2015
Sorry, WG, . . . American joke.
TheGhostofOtto1923
4.3 / 5 (11) Dec 28, 2015
Tell us all about how you earned the Order of the British Empire
Well i didnt and im not about to lie and say i did.

Tell us why you think you know enough about physics to comment intelligently on string theory.
gkam
1.3 / 5 (12) Dec 28, 2015
Is it Stolen Valor or is it a crime to exhibit the OBE if you do not have one?

Which is it?
TheGhostofOtto1923
4.3 / 5 (12) Dec 28, 2015
Is it Stolen Valor or is it a crime to exhibit the OBE if you do not have one?

Which is it?
Uh no. Thats a picture you dimwit. I got it off a website written by people who have not earned it either.

It contains the words god and empire which I frequently talk about. It is a form of 'sarcasm'.

Hey did you know that an inability to recognize sarcasm is a sign of senility?

But speaking of crimes, it IS a crime to advertise engineering services if you are not one. Which you apparently have done as a 'consultant', and which others here have warned you about.

But as you think you know more than most real engrs, even to the extent that you call yourself an engr when you are clearly and by your own admission NOT one, I assume you also think that these laws dont apply to you.

Am I correct?
TheGhostofOtto1923
4.6 / 5 (10) Dec 28, 2015
George - tell the community here why you think you know enough about physics to comment intelligently on string theory.
my2cts
3 / 5 (10) Dec 28, 2015

The voting is broken. Too many linked accounts voting more than once. Too many people working in industries that want to hide the truth and use public forums to post in.

So the whole world is conspiring against DavidWanker.
It's all about you. Nothing else matters.
That is narcissism. Get a shrink.
my2cts
3 / 5 (10) Dec 28, 2015
They sent a telescope into space just to cross DavidWanker, the Messiah.
Uncle Ira
4.4 / 5 (14) Dec 28, 2015
George - tell the community here why you think you know enough about physics to comment intelligently on string theory.


Well knowing journeyman level electricity has given him the knowledge basics to comment on environmental activism,

and international intelligence collecting,
and aeronautics design,
and nuclear engineering,
and electromagnetic "smog" (that's one of my favorites),
and gun owner psychology,
and building power stations out of cow poo (he's still working the bug out of how to keep it out of the high atmosphere),
and buying coal and nuclear power out of state so he can claim California doesn't have any of that,
and what a bang up job Duke Progress Energy is doing cleaning up their coal ash,
and I could go on but it would get boring (which he doesn't seem to have noticed after all this time.)

But he did have a really huge ball of string when he was a kid, so yeah, for a goober he can probably do a passable job on the string theory.
Uncle Ira
4.3 / 5 (11) Dec 28, 2015

The voting is broken. Too many linked accounts voting more than once. Too many people working in industries that want to hide the truth and use public forums to post in.

So the whole world is conspiring against DavidWanker.
It's all about you. Nothing else matters.
That is narcissism. Get a shrink.


Man oh man, this David-Skippy seems to be need another course of treatments at the hospital for peoples with really bad mental conditions. I might have to take him off the ignore and give him another shot at being somebody I can have some big fun with.
my2cts
3.2 / 5 (9) Dec 28, 2015
Even an amateur psychiatrist like me can spot the problem with him.
It's fun !
TheGhostofOtto1923
4.2 / 5 (10) Dec 28, 2015
But he did have a really huge ball of string when he was a kid, so yeah, for a goober he can probably do a passable job on the string theory
Maybe his mom told him to tie a knot around his finger to remember stuff but he tied it around his throat instead.

O2 deprivation can be fun, at least according to david carradine, but it can lead to permanent brain damage you know. Especially if it became a habit.

"One very interesting aspect of the psychopath is his "hidden life" that is sometimes not too well hidden. It seems that the psychopath has a regular need to take a "vacation into filth and degradation" the same way normal people may take a vacation to a resort where they enjoy beautiful surroundings and culture... a need that seems to be evidence that "acting human" is very stressful to the psychopath..."

-I offer this not as an excuse but as a possible explanation. This does confuse cause and effect somewhat however.
Uncle Ira
4.4 / 5 (13) Dec 28, 2015
Oh boy, it's looks like David-Skippy is getting primed for one of those public interweb meltdowns. Maybe he should think about joining Returnering-Skippy up in Mandeville for a couple of weeks, eh?

Whydening Gyre
4.6 / 5 (11) Dec 29, 2015
AGreatWhopper boasted:


...
And false humility is arrogant. Facts are facts and the fact is that I'm retired and independently wealthy at 45, have an IQ of 156, two doctorates and four bachelor's degrees, a perfect wife, do exactly as I please and will end it all if any of the above ever change substantially.


No, the fact is you are most important. You came on here and boasted in complete arrogance.

How so?

You failed to mention all those people that bleed out for you on the battlefield that you might have a chance at something better. You missed the entire point of the gift given to you. You have spit on their graves. Shame on you for all your days.

Shucks. And here I just took it as sarcasm...
BTW, I was one of those people on the "battlefield"... Didn't bleed out for anyone, but I was there. Were you?
Whydening Gyre
4.6 / 5 (10) Dec 29, 2015

Well knowing journeyman level electricity has given him the knowledge basics to comment on environmental activism,

and international intelligence collecting,
and aeronautics design,
and nuclear engineering,
and electromagnetic "smog" (that's one of my favorites),
and gun owner psychology,
and building power stations out of cow poo (he's still working the bug out of how to keep it out of the high atmosphere),
and buying coal and nuclear power out of state so he can claim California doesn't have any of that,
and what a bang up job Duke Progress Energy is doing cleaning up their coal ash,
and I could go on but it would get boring (which he doesn't seem to have noticed after all this time.)

But he did have a really huge ball of string when he was a kid, so yeah, for a goober he can probably do a passable job on the string theory.

Careful Ira. You're Cajun colloquialisms are fading...:-)
Hangin' out here too much?
And they're not strings, they're "chains"...:-)
my2cts
2.5 / 5 (8) Dec 29, 2015
@DavidW
What are you going on about our wives, poor schmuck.
Why don't you get help before someone gets hurt?
Dial 911, a friendly voice will take over from there.
my2cts
2.5 / 5 (8) Dec 29, 2015
FYI, that's a story you read. It's not true. He was murdered. That's a fact.

Who dunnit DW?
Anybody in particular that you want to accuse?
bluehigh
4.3 / 5 (6) Dec 29, 2015
@WG

Even Albert had a cross to bare! Your extraordinary posts in this thread worry me. Best I can do is hope you have a wonderful year in 2016 and look forward to more contributions from you in this forum.

* places two glasses and a bottle of bourbon on the table .. and offers a hand shake *
Whydening Gyre
4.3 / 5 (6) Dec 29, 2015
@WG

Even Albert had a cross to bare! Your extraordinary posts in this thread worry me. Best I can do is hope you have a wonderful year in 2016 and look forward to more contributions from you in this forum.

* places two glasses and a bottle of bourbon on the table .. and offers a hand shake *

nothin' extraordinary that I can tell...:-)
shakin' yer hand, but decided to take a little bourbon break this month...:-) Bring on the coffee!
bluehigh
4.2 / 5 (5) Dec 29, 2015
Irish Coffee?
Either way, skip the refined sugar.
Short black my favourite.

On my way out ...

' The stars are not so far away. It's a trick of the light '

( and the trigonometry is invalid when apparent position is distorted )

I must try use 'light' cream!

TheGhostofOtto1923
4.3 / 5 (11) Dec 29, 2015
Show her how you claim to have without life, while having a life to do it with, in the complete and ultimate hypocrisy in which you speak. Show her how every terrible thing that happens to life is the fault of your selfishness and ego
Yeah this reminds me of the E coli I got from eating a dead fish and then I took antibiotics to get better.

What carnage! I felt terrible about it you know but at least I could keep a burger down after that.
David carradine was MURDERED you bastard!!!
Yeah I can tell you miss him even now.
Whydening Gyre
4.3 / 5 (6) Dec 29, 2015
David carradine was MURDERED you bastard!!!

That's what you get when your name is "grasshopper".
I "murder" a few every time I mow my yard in the summer...
Whydening Gyre
4.2 / 5 (5) Dec 29, 2015
Short black my favourite.

Tall black with a shot of blueberry juice.
(Doublin' up on the anti-oxidants)

On my way out ...

' The stars are not so far away. It's a trick of the light '

( and the trigonometry is invalid when apparent position is distorted )

What causes the distortion? The New Horizon trig was pretty dead on for the huge distance to Pluto.
Shouldn't we have seen even a minute distortion for that trip?

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