Final kiss of two stars heading for catastrophe

October 21, 2015
This artist's impression shows VFTS 352 -- the hottest and most massive double star system to date where the two components are in contact and sharing material. The two stars in this extreme system lie about 160,000 light-years from Earth in the Large Magellanic Cloud. This intriguing system could be heading for a dramatic end, either with the formation of a single giant star or as a future binary black hole. Credit: ESO/L. Calcada

Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, an international team of astronomers have found the hottest and most massive double star with components so close that they touch each other. The two stars in the extreme system VFTS 352 could be heading for a dramatic end, during which the two stars either coalesce to create a single giant star, or form a binary black hole.

The double star system VFTS 352 is located about 160 000 light-years away in the Tarantula Nebula. This remarkable region is the most active nursery of new stars in the nearby Universe and new observations from ESO's VLT have revealed that this pair of young stars is among the most extreme and strangest yet found.

VFTS 352 is composed of two very hot, bright and that orbit each other in little more than a day. The centres of the stars are separated by just 12 million kilometres. In fact, the stars are so close that their surfaces overlap and a bridge has formed between them. VFTS 352 is not only the most massive known in this tiny class of "overcontact binaries"—it has a combined mass of about 57 times that of the Sun—but it also contains the hottest components—with surface temperatures above 40 000 degrees Celsius.

Extreme stars like the two components of VFTS 352, play a key role in the evolution of galaxies and are thought to be the main producers of elements such as oxygen. Such double stars are also linked to exotic behaviour such as that shown by "vampire stars", where a smaller companion star sucks matter from the surface of its larger neighbour (eso1230).

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This animated artist’s impression shows VFTS 352 — the hottest and most massive double star system to date where the two components are in contact and sharing material. The two stars in this extreme system lie about 160 000 light-years from Earth in the Large Magellanic Cloud. This intriguing pair could be heading for a dramatic end, either with the creation of a single monster star or the formation of a binary black hole. Credit: ESO/L. Calçada

In the case of VFTS 352, however, both stars in the system are of almost identical size. Material is, therefore, not sucked from one to another, but instead may be shared. The component stars of VFTS 352 are estimated to be sharing about 30 per cent of their material.

Such a system is very rare because this phase in the life of the stars is short, making it difficult to catch them in the act. Because the stars are so close together, astronomers think that strong tidal forces lead to enhanced mixing of the material in the stellar interiors.

"The VFTS 352 is the best case yet found for a hot and massive that may show this kind of internal mixing," explains lead author Leonardo A. Almeida of the University of São Paulo, Brazil. "As such it's a fascinating and important discovery."

Astronomers predict that VFTS 352 will face a cataclysmic fate in one of two ways. The first potential outcome is the merging of the two stars, which would likely produce a rapidly rotating, and possibly magnetic, gigantic single star. "If it keeps spinning rapidly it might end its life in one of the most energetic explosions in the Universe, known as a long-duration gamma-ray burst," says the lead scientist of the project, Hugues Sana, of the University of Leuven in Belgium.

The second possibility is explained by the lead theoretical astrophysicist in the team, Selma de Mink of University of Amsterdam: "If the are mixed well enough, they both remain compact and the VFTS 352 system may avoid merging. This would lead the objects down a new evolutionary path that is completely different from classic stellar evolution predictions. In the case of VFTS 352, the components would likely end their lives in supernova explosions, forming a close binary system of black holes. Such a remarkable object would be an intense source of gravitational waves."

Proving the existence of this second evolutionary path [6] would be an observational breakthrough in the field of stellar astrophysics. But, regardless of how VFTS 352 meets its demise, this system has already provided astronomers with valuable new insights into the poorly understood evolutionary processes of massive overcontact binary star systems.

This research was presented in a paper in entitled "Discovery of the massive overcontact binary VFTS 352: Evidence for enhanced internal mixing", by L. Almeida et al., in the Astrophysical Journal.

Explore further: VLT finds a brilliant but solitary superstar

More information: L. A. Almeida et al. DISCOVERY OF THE MASSIVE OVERCONTACT BINARY VFTS 352: EVIDENCE FOR ENHANCED INTERNAL MIXING, The Astrophysical Journal (2015). DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/812/2/102

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Bigbangcon
1.7 / 5 (6) Oct 21, 2015
The formation of this type of double stars (like a diatomic molecule) can be explained on the basis of a qualitative graviton-orbital theory of gravity; similar to molecular orbital theory in chemistry, but based on the graviton as a constituent part of matter :http://www.amazon...0414445. If these two are a combination of a matter-antimatter stars, then they will eventually annihilate each other to a giant gamma ray burst according to the dialectical perspective of the universe.

It is not only stars, but galaxies also exist in binary combination as shown in the above (book) reference, based on the following journal publication: http://adsabs.har...74..534M
Solon
1.8 / 5 (5) Oct 21, 2015
So these two stars are electrically neutral?
gkam
1.7 / 5 (6) Oct 21, 2015
"So these two stars are electrically neutral?"
---------------------------------

What a strange question.

Electrically, they share a common ground reference.

Why would you assume they had some electrical charge? From what? And between them and what else? Got a long wire?
gkam
1.6 / 5 (7) Oct 21, 2015
This electrical charge thing is strange to me. Why would a cosmic body with a strong electrical potential, meaning an imbalance of positive and negative charges exist? How would it get that way? Since the charge to mass ratio of the electron and the proton are so high, the same-charged particles would all separate from each other.

Solon
1.6 / 5 (7) Oct 21, 2015
"This electrical charge thing is strange to me. Why would a cosmic body with a strong electrical potential, meaning an imbalance of positive and negative charges exist?"

Pannekoek-Rosseland charge separation.

wduckss
1.7 / 5 (6) Oct 21, 2015
Is already article was published here that blue stars (and white) have a very fast rotation around its axis. It is here ignores and observes the frozen image.
During, possible, merger, two bodies laterally, there is no explosion, because it is has nothing to run. Super nova arises when the body hit one of the poles of the star, where we have a cyclone and they enter deeper into the star which explodes and starts a chain reaction.
Is unlikely that this is a binary system already, it is about approaching (if?) bodies on the same trajectory and the same speeds ...
Stars do not produce oxygen, but him decompose ...
TheGhostofOtto1923
3.9 / 5 (7) Oct 21, 2015
"So these two stars are electrically neutral?"
---------------------------------

What a strange question.

Electrically, they share a common ground reference.

Why would you assume they had some electrical charge? From what? And between them and what else? Got a long wire?
Ha george the educated expert never heard of static electricity.
plasmasrevenge
1 / 5 (4) Oct 21, 2015
If astronomers follow up observations on this object, they will notice that they are separating. They are fissioning, not combining. I'm pretty sure that would be the electrical cosmology explanation for this observation: They started as one, and are now splitting.
Whydening Gyre
4.7 / 5 (6) Oct 21, 2015
They started as one, and are now splitting.

That is an interesting hypothesis. Or it could be merging.
Guess we'll just have to sit back and wait.
Wonder how long it will take to do one or the other...
Uncle Ira
4.1 / 5 (9) Oct 21, 2015
Wonder how long it will take to do one or the other...


Well I don't think you will miss your favorite episode of Leverage reruns, choot, I would venture to guess that your great grand kids will be great grand parents before it does the one thing and I think it is a pretty safe bet it will never do the other thing.

Hey, Whydening-Skippy. How you are friend? I am good and fine and dandy.
Whydening Gyre
5 / 5 (4) Oct 21, 2015
Wonder how long it will take to do one or the other...


Well I don't think you will miss your favorite episode of Leverage reruns, choot, I would venture to guess that your great grand kids will be great grand parents before it does the one thing and I think it is a pretty safe bet it will never do the other thing.

Prob'ly ain't enuff popcorn on the planet, anyway...

Hey, Whydening-Skippy. How you are friend? I am good and fine and dandy.

Hey, Ira.. All is good.
Like everything - could be better, but - doesn't need to be...:-)
TegiriNenashi
1 / 5 (3) Oct 22, 2015
Is peanut shaped star possible at all? How do you explain circular shape of the star when the center of the mass of the system is not that far from center of each individual star? Then, why all the star material just aggregate around center of the mass of the system? In other words, whoever pictured this peanut shape severely underestimated tidal forces.
SuperThunder
3.7 / 5 (6) Oct 22, 2015
Yet another thing in the universe that just wows me.

I so badly would like to see what this actually looks like, with my own eyes. It's not fair that the universe is so huge and amazing and I am so mortal and lacking a physics-ignoring faster than light conveyance.

Of course, stars can't make jokes (until they explode, coalesce, and become comedian laden planets), so it balances out.
Whydening Gyre
5 / 5 (4) Oct 23, 2015
Yet another thing in the universe that just wows me.

I so badly would like to see what this actually looks like, with my own eyes. It's not fair that the universe is so huge and amazing and I am so mortal and lacking a physics-ignoring faster than light conveyance.

This is humility at it's finest - Wonderment, lightly spiced with a little humour...:-)
Whydening Gyre
5 / 5 (4) Oct 23, 2015
Is peanut shaped star possible at all?

In a Universe of infinite possibility (like ours) - sure.
How do you explain circular shape of the star when the center of the mass of the system is not that far from center of each individual star? Then, why all the star material just aggregate around center of the mass of the system? In other words, whoever pictured this peanut shape severely underestimated tidal forces.

You really expected an artists impression to exactly conform to reality ?!?
TegiriNenashi
1 / 5 (2) Oct 23, 2015
You really expected an artists impression to exactly conform to reality ?!?


I'm pretty sure people did gravitational modelling of two stars merging or just rotating in close proximity of each other, so I wonder what kind of shape system has when distance between stars is comparable to star radius. Two ellipsoids? With eccentricity how large?
Whydening Gyre
5 / 5 (4) Oct 23, 2015
You really expected an artists impression to exactly conform to reality ?!?


I'm pretty sure people did gravitational modelling of two stars merging or just rotating in close proximity of each other, so I wonder what kind of shape system has when distance between stars is comparable to star radius. Two ellipsoids? With eccentricity how large?

Good question. I imagine it would look like 2 egg shapes overlapping at the parabolic points. Next question(s) are - are they actually in orbit around each other? Individually spinning?
gkam
2.3 / 5 (6) Oct 24, 2015
"Because they obey the will of the Creator. "
------------------------------------------

Xenu?
my2cts
3.8 / 5 (10) Oct 24, 2015
Why the elementary particles obey physical laws. Because they obey the will of the Creator. The smallest processor entity in the universe.

So now god is a microprocessor, a heartless tiny piece of electronics. Where does the 5 volts come from, from the Eternal Power Outlet ?
There are no laws of physics in the bible.
Shouldn't you then replace your favourite and only book by Feynman's Lectures?
Or Thornton and Wheeler ?
Returners
1.8 / 5 (5) Oct 25, 2015
the components would likely end their lives in supernova explosions, forming a close binary system of black holes. Such a remarkable object would be an intense source of gravitational waves."


Majick physics. Majick physics.

When they blow up, they lose most of their mass, dumbass.

They cannot hold onto one another gravitationaly any more, because each object's angular velocity exceeds the new escape velocity of the other object.

Not to mention, as discussed, the thrust effect on the other star when the first one explodes.

Poor, poor astrophysicists suck at the only thing they do.

Fire these people fast, they don't have a brain.

It's insane these people get paid to do this.

You fail to understand the power of a core collapse supernova in real-world terms.

When one of these stars blows up, it will EJECT the other star from the system...

It will not form a binary black hole.

That is a fairy tale.
Returners
1.8 / 5 (5) Oct 25, 2015
I hope it blows up tomorrow, so you disconnected astrophysicists get some education.

Well, I hope the light from the explosion gets here tomorrow, so I guess that means I hope it blew up ~160,000 years ago, assuming you people are even measuring that correctly.
Captain Stumpy
3.7 / 5 (3) Oct 25, 2015
I hope it blows up tomorrow, so you disconnected astrophysicists get some education.

Well, I hope the light from the explosion gets here tomorrow, so I guess that means I hope it blew up ~160,000 years ago, assuming you people are even measuring that correctly.


http://www.dpa.st...h17.html

nuff said
Returners
2 / 5 (4) Oct 25, 2015
I have done the actual geometry, projecting a conic from the core of one of the stars onto the surface of the other star, given the dimensions they used.

Using the Crab Nebula as an example of a core collapse Supernova, and observing that about 1/3rd of the mass is ejected, I found that about 1.5 solar masses worth of matter is inside the conic projected onto the second star. Ejecting 1/3rd of this mass would come to approximately 0.5 solar masses hitting the second star with a relative velocity of 1500km/s or more. the momenta of this ejecta is enough to accelerate the second star away by a net velocity change of around plus 27km/s, AWAY from the forming black hole.

Even if the shockwave compresses the second star to the point of implosion (a process that would take a minimum of a few hours) it will still be moving away as a unit at PLUS 27km/s IN ADDITION to the initial velocity. The first star has lost 2/3rds of it's mass, using Crab as prototype.
Returners
2 / 5 (4) Oct 25, 2015
If the second star is imploded by the pressure-wave, and it too experiences a core-collapse, the Super Nova will only serve to decrease the total mass of the system further, and also slam the black hole with a bit of mass moving back the opposite direction at a couple thousand km/s. However, the black hole's cross-sectional area and gravity is much less now than the original 1st star, so most of this second supernova's ejected mass misses. In other words the projected conic is much,much more narrow.

The expanding (approximately) spherical ejecta clouds would merge first into a peanut shape and then as time goes on it would smooth out to an oblate spheroidic shape.

So even if there were 2 black holes forming in such a way, they will be accelerated away from one another far above the velocity needed to escape one another's gravity from their original core positions.

The gravity formula doesn't magically change just because it's a black hole.
Returners
1.8 / 5 (5) Oct 25, 2015
The fact these "PROFESSIONALS" cannot understand this should immediately disqualify them from their positions at whatever facilities they are employed, because they are incompetent.

This is analogous to if you put a ton of Rock (star 2) adjacent to a ton of high explosives(Star 1) in space and detonate the explosives...except that the explosive velocity of the real star 1 is a thousand times higher.
Returners
1.8 / 5 (5) Oct 25, 2015
You can "1" me all you want, you moron, but that won't change a thing.

I know you idiots can't accept that, and I know you won't admit I was right even after it happens, because that's just the way you perverts are.

...PERVERTS, because you have perverted science and reason.
Captain Stumpy
3 / 5 (4) Oct 25, 2015
... cannot understand this should immediately disqualify them from their positions...because they are incompetent
http://www.dpa.st...h17.html
lets look at wade:
Reality Confusion

Signals of Mental Impairment in Speech- "off- track." The speaker begins to answer one question but somehow moves off that topic ...the speaker starts on one topic but slowly slips from one thought to another...long-winded, circuitous, and filled with irrelevant details

other language problems which indicate potential mental impairment

Attention and Concentration Problems

Emotional Tone- worry, mistrust, sorrow, irritability and impatience

The inability of [the troll] to accurately appraise himself may offer other clues to mental illness

Interactions with Others
you also thought you proved god existed with physics... i would call that delusional

so, get back on the meds, bubbette
Returners
2 / 5 (4) Oct 25, 2015
Wade Daniel Smith
39331 Rosaryville Road
Ponchatoula, Louisiana 70454

My Nobel buddy, my Nobel.

Anybody else gets awarded it I'm suing for stealing my intellectual property, since you blokes can't understand it.
Whydening Gyre
5 / 5 (5) Oct 25, 2015
Wade Daniel Smith
39331 Rosaryville Road
Ponchatoula, Louisiana 70454

My Nobel buddy, my Nobel.

Anybody else gets awarded it I'm suing for stealing my intellectual property, since you blokes can't understand it.

Who's Wade?
And - fork the nobel, I just wanna see what happens.
Nobody has responded to my questions - are they actually rotating around each other(orbiting)? if so, has a rate of change been detected? Are they spinning individually and if so, what directions?
Returners
2.3 / 5 (3) Oct 26, 2015
Who's Wade?
And - fork the nobel, I just wanna see what happens.
Nobody has responded to my questions - are they actually rotating around each other(orbiting)? if so, has a rate of change been detected? Are they spinning individually and if so, what directions?

Obviously they are orbiting very quickly. He said the orbit was a little more than a day. So the angular velocity, relative to one another, and assuming that is CoG to CoG distance, would be:

A little less than 436km/s angular velocity.

So a 27km/s net acceleration that I calculated would be a 6% change in angular velocity, which combined with the fact the first star exploding loses about 2/3rds of it's mass,is more than enough to eject the second star completely.

The ejection does not happen instantaneously, it is sent on a hyperbolic/spiral which gradually escapes. Curve is unique to each system, but mostly the same physics, assuming approximately symmetric explosion.
Returners
2 / 5 (4) Oct 26, 2015
you also thought you proved god existed with physics... i would call that delusional

so, get back on the meds, bubbette


You are without doubt the most unscientific fool I have yet encountered on this site.

Math, Reason, Physics, and finally Personal Experience, are the only tools we have to observe God.

Since personal Experience cannot be replicated to others, that leaves Math, Reason, and Physics.

God is the source of Logic, is even called THE Logos in the Bible.

You don't get to re-define terms just because you don't like them, atheist.

Math, Reason, and Physics are perfectly acceptable tools for proving God exists, the best tools.

A miracle is great for personal experience, but by definition a miracle is when God over-rides the laws of physics to do something normally impossible...so we can't replicate that.

I can still show by Reason and Physics that the universe was created by a prior intelligence, which I have done many times.
Returners
2 / 5 (4) Oct 26, 2015
Let's be clear, atheist, "Miracles" do not over-ride the laws of logic or math or reason, they simply override the laws of physics, which is a sub-set of philosophy, not the super-set.

God is the origin, the author and finisher, the beginning and end.

You have some personal vendetta against God, because your mommy didn't give you a cookie one day, or for some other reason, and you think that somehow changes the facts, but it doesn't.

The Set Theory argument proves the universe did not come from nothing, and in fact is required to have come from a pre-existing condition, and the only pre-existing condition which meets the terms is LOGOS itself...and you reject that because of the hardness of your heart.

"In the beginning was the Logos and the Logos was with God and the Logos was God. All things were made by him..."

Returners
2 / 5 (4) Oct 26, 2015
The scientific community's understanding of core collapse Supernovas is CLOSE but FLAWED.

They believe the explosion comes from the GPE of the collapsing neutron Star. Not only is this notion flawed (the GPE is actually not an "actionable" substance, but is a measure of how much energy is NEEDED, not AVAILABLE to overcome gravity) therefore their theory of how core collapse SN happen is flawed.

They believe the collapse of the Iron Core into a Neutron Star is what causes the explosion. This is flawed. There is not enough energy available in this process to explain the Crab Nebula event....not by a looooon, looooooong shot.

About 1/3rd of the calculated mass needed to produce a Neutron Star is missing from the Crab Nebula system....and the scientists don't know what happened to it.

A significant problem in studies of the Crab Nebula is that the combined mass of the nebula and the pulsar add up to considerably less than the predicted mass of the progenitor star
Returners
2 / 5 (4) Oct 26, 2015
cont...

The predominant theory to account for the missing mass of the Crab is that a substantial proportion of the mass of the progenitor was carried away before the supernova explosion in a fast stellar wind, a phenomenon commonly seen in Wolf-Rayet stars. However, this would have created a shell around the nebula. Although attempts have been made at several wavelengths to observe a shell, none has yet been found.


Evidence for their patch-work alternate hypothesis can't be found....there is no stellar wind shell around the system.

This shows the entire event happens DIFFERENTLY than the prevailing model.

https://en.wikipe...gths.png

In my view, the Neutron Star is not created in the SN explosion...it already exists at least some time before the actual explosion, possibly as much as a few seconds to a few minutes before the explosion.
Returners
2 / 5 (4) Oct 26, 2015
The prevailing theory is wrong because the GPE is not available to do "work". The GPE is a measure of hwo much "work" is needed, under the assumption of the density conditions for which it was calculated.

As the electromagnetic an nuclear forces start to fail, and the core collapse happens, the GPE increases inverse hyperbolically, because the "R" gets smaller.

So WHERE did the missing mass go?

During the last second or two of the core collapse, the matter just above the surface of the Neutron Star is ANNIHILATED to produce gamma rays, which provides the momentum which ejects the remaining `~1/3rd of the mass of the Star into space at escape velocity. Most of this momentum is burned off during the next second or two as the mass is lifted out of the multi-trillion m/s^2 gravitational acceleration of the surface of the neutron star and escapes into space. In the case of the Crab, the matter has averaged 1500km/s for 960 years.
antialias_physorg
5 / 5 (3) Oct 26, 2015
Nobody has responded to my questions - are they actually rotating around each other(orbiting)?

It says in the article: "VFTS 352 is composed of two very hot, bright and massive stars that orbit each other in little more than a day"

Are they spinning individually and if so, what directions?

Whether they are tidally locked is doubtful, as we're not dealing with solid planets. With an overlapping surface, however, it's a bit tricky to define individual rotation speeds.

Returners
2.3 / 5 (3) Oct 26, 2015
Now Synchotron radiation re-accelerated some of the ejecta, but rest assured that during the first second of the explosion the cloud was expanding at relativistic speeds, and the gravity of the Neutron star still slows it down by the majority of it's speed during that first second or two.

You can calculate the amount of "energy" (net "work") actually needed to produce the observed results of the Crab Nebula expansion, with the assumption of the Neutron Star already existing a few seconds to a few minutes BEFORE the explosion, and the remaining mass being smashed onto the surface of the neutron star core...

...This needed work comes out to exactly the same energy as the mass-energy of the "missing mass".

Which means the "missing mass" was annihilated during a matter-anti-matter annihilation event, apparently caused by "anti-neutron synthesis", and converted to gamma rays and momentum (or kinetic energy whichever way you want to measure it.)

Returners
2.3 / 5 (3) Oct 26, 2015
The anti-neutron synthesis theory, which I have developed, is the ONLY explanation I have ever seen which remotely comes close to filling in the gaps of the Crab Nebula explosion.

Photo-disintegration and any Iron-chain fusion produces an insignificant amount of energy compared to what is needed to produce the observed results of the Crab...most of these reactions in the process of creating the neutron star core are actually endothermic and work AGAINST the explosion.

So the energy which explodes the matter away from the Neutron Star does NOT come from the Neutron Star itself. If comes from a matter-anti-matter annihilation event which happens on the surface of the neutron star as the remaining fusionable materials are compressed instantaneously by the insane gravity, and some of the particles (about 1/6th of the total mass of the star) produce anti-particles in some of the fusion reactions. this anti-matter then annihilates another 1/6th of the star's mass.
Returners
2 / 5 (4) Oct 26, 2015
That is why there is no "stellar wind shell" to observe at the Crab Nebula.

The mass wasn't carried away during the last years 'before' the Neutron Star formed.

The mass was annihilated and radiated away as Gamma Rays and Kinetic Energy, most of which flew by us 961 years ago. Fortunately we are ~6500ly away, so it disperses before it reaches our distance.

https://upload.wi...osse.jpg

This is the shape you would expect for a SN with a companion star.

the elongation is caused by the gravity of the second star pulling on the shell of matter as it expands, and sling-shot (gravity assist) some of it even faster than it's initial velocity, while being struck by a great deal of mass and energy too.

In this case, the companion star was far enough away that it wasn't destroyed, and is likely somewhere in the vicinity still, but likely on a gradually outward-decaying orbit.
Returners
2 / 5 (4) Oct 26, 2015
The cloud has expanded to 11ly or so, so an outward decaying orbit of a companion star would have decayed outward only by about 0.1ly to 1ly in the intervening 960 years since the explosion, depending on several factors, including its original mass and its original distance from the Crab Pulsar itself.

The Helium Torus is created by the combined gravity of the Pulsar and a companion star which is (or was) somewhere in the vicinity long enough to re-capture some of this mass.

A torus forms because the mass ejected in the polar directions does not have enough angular momentum to form a stable orbit, and thus falls back onto the surface of one or more of the stars (gradually over many years), but the mass along the equatorial plane does have enough angular momentum to form a semi-stable orbit.

The polar jet serves to further carve out other matter above and below the torus, but you will notice from the x-ray frames that even this can't achieve escape velocity.
Returners
2 / 5 (4) Oct 26, 2015
Notice that the matter in the Polar Jet is being captured again:

https://upload.wi...crab.jpg

Indicating that the Neutron Star does not have enough energy available to do the amount of needed "work" to eject a significant amount of matter. This jet was actually ejected hundreds of years ago, and has been re-captured.

https://upload.wi...gths.png

There may actually have been TWO companion stars, but I admit I have trouble visualizing exactly how that process works.

The issue here is that it is difficult for one companion star to explain both the torus and the rain-drop shaped jet, because the torus implies one companion orbits on the same plane as the torus, but the tear-drop shape drawn:

https://upload.wi...osse.jpg

w/ bell-shaped distortion of torus, implies a second companion star exists on different orbital plane
Returners
2 / 5 (4) Oct 26, 2015
Notice that the "top" of the "Bell" which is facing away from us, with bottom/inside facing towards us, is being "stretched" away and then around to the left side of the image.

https://upload.wi...gths.png

See X-ray frame:

This distortion is not caused by an asymmetric supernova. This feature is much younger than the supernova itself (the expanding nebula).

This is caused by an asymmetric gravity field, namely a 3-body, which implies a second companion somewhere in that direction. Notice the top of the bell first is warped up and right, then forms a "tail" which is warped up and very yard left.

This implies a passing companion, farther than the first and on a different orbital plane, provided gravity assist to this matter, and continues to "tug" on it, and is also in the direction of the elongation of the expanding cloud (adjusted for stellar movement since then).

Returners
2 / 5 (4) Oct 26, 2015
Finally, it's possible that the third star was not actually on an "orbit" of the Pulsar, but was just passing by in the vicinity when this happened, but coming close enough to distort the Torus into a "bell" in the negative Z direction; assuming positive Z is the polar jet forward-oblique to us, and the negative Z is the polar jet and the top of the bell away and oblique from us.

Now I feel satisfied that I have offered a mostly complete explanation of the evolution of all of the major components of this system.

One day when the physicists invent computer models which actually work everything out from the Quark level upwards, we will have a full and complete understanding of how the matter-anti-matter annihilation event happens.

As long as scientists continue to model these things under the assumption that the collapse of the neutron star core itself produces the explosion, they will continue to be baffled and reach wrong conclusions about all of these systems....
Returners
2 / 5 (4) Oct 26, 2015
Anyway, the prevailing model right now claims that the energy from the explosion comes from the Gravitational Binding Energy, and this is a fairy tale...

They won a NOBEL for that, because even though it was WRONG it was close enough to describe something which was detected...namely the Crab Pulsar.

However, in reality neither photo-disintegration nor the GBE represent energy or momenta available to do "work".

GBE is a MEASURE of how much "work" is needed to move the matter to escape velocity. It is not an actually available "substance" existing within the system.

the release of Gravitational Potential Energy of the star as it collapses also is nowhere near enough to do the "work" needed to throw 1/3rd of the star's mass into space at escape velocity, and in any case by no means explains the missing 1/3rd of the calculated mass...which they can't find anywhere...

Therefore I am confident that my theory is closer to the truth than standard model.
Returners
2 / 5 (4) Oct 26, 2015
in fact, the GPE has a negative (inward) sign (as a vector direction not as a charge).

The Energy needed to explode the star must have a POSITIVE vector sign with respect to the gravity field. So the GPE does not explode the star. The GPE of any given shell of matter does in fact contribute to crushing the remaining fusionable matter above the surface of the neutron Star, but it is the fusion and the anti-matter annihilation which actually explodes the star, which turns out to be orders of magnitude more than the GPE itself.
Whydening Gyre
5 / 5 (3) Oct 26, 2015
Nobody has responded to my questions - are they actually rotating around each other(orbiting)?

It says in the article: "VFTS 352 is composed of two very hot, bright and massive stars that orbit each other in little more than a day"

Thanks AA. For some reason I didn't catch that even after reading 3 times...
Dang dysleftia....
Whydening Gyre
5 / 5 (3) Oct 26, 2015
And, Returners...
You DO realize the picture is just an "artist's impression", right?

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