Researchers develop new biodegradable silicon transistor based on a material derived from wood

June 30, 2015
Biodegradable, flexible silicon transistors
An array of microwave silicon transistors sitting on a wood-derived CNF substrate. Credit: Jung-Hun Seo, Shaoqin Gong and Zhenqiang Ma/University of Wisconsin-Madison

Portable electronics users tend to upgrade their devices frequently as new technologies offering more functionality and more convenience become available. A report published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 2012 showed that about 152 million mobile devices are discarded every year, of which only 10 percent is recycled—a legacy of waste that consumes a tremendous amount of natural resources and produces a lot of trash made from expensive and non-biodegradable materials like highly purified silicon.

Now researchers from the University of Wisconsin-Madison have come up with a new solution to alleviate the environmental burden of discarded electronics. They have demonstrated the feasibility of making microwave biodegradable thin-film transistors from a transparent, flexible biodegradable substrate made from inexpensive wood, called cellulose nanofibrillated fiber (CNF). This work opens the door for green, low-cost, in future.

In a paper published this week in the Applied Physics Letters, the researchers describe the biodegradable .

"We found that cellulose nanofibrillated fiber based transistors exhibit superior performance as that of conventional silicon-based transistors," said Zhenqiang Ma, the team leader and a professor of electrical and computer engineering at the UW-Madison. "And the bio-based transistors are so safe that you can put them in the forest, and fungus will quickly degrade them. They become as safe as fertilizer."

Nowadays, the majority of are built on non-renewable, non-biodegradable materials such as silicon wafers, which are highly purified, expensive and rigid substrates, but cellulose nanofibrillated fiber films have the potential to replace silicon wafers as electronic substrates in environmental friendly, low-cost, portable gadgets or devices of the future.

Cellulose nanofibrillated fiber is a sustainable, strong, transparent nanomaterial made from wood. Compared to other polymers like plastics, the wood nanomaterial is biocompatible and has relatively low thermal expansion coefficient, which means the material won't change shape as the temperature changes. All these superior properties make cellulose nanofibril an outstanding candidate for making portable green electronics.

Biodegradable, flexible silicon transistors
A fresh CNF based microwave silicon transistor chip. After three weeks of putting it in a woodpile, the chip was partially degraded with the help of fungi. Credit: Jung-Hun Seo, Shaoqin Gong and Zhenqiang Ma/University of Wisconsin-Madison

To create high-performance devices, Ma's team employed silicon nanomembranes as the active material in the transistor—pieces of ultra-thin films (thinner than a human hair) peeled from the bulk crystal and then transferred and glued onto the cellulose nanofibrill substrate to create a flexible, biodegradable and transparent silicon transistor.

But to make portable electronics, the biodegradable transistor needed to be able to operate at microwave frequencies, which is the working range of most wireless devices. The researchers thus conducted a series of experiments such as measuring the current-voltage characteristics to study the device's functional performance, which finally showed the biodegradable transistor has superior microwave-frequency operation capabilities comparable to existing semiconductor transistors.

"Biodegradable electronics provide a new solution for environmental problems brought by consumers' pursuit of quickly upgraded portable devices," said Ma. "It can be anticipated that future electronic chips and portable devices will be much greener and cheaper than that of today."

Next, Ma and colleagues plan to develop more complicated circuit system based on the biodegradable transistors.

Explore further: Research could lead to biodegradable computer chips

More information: Microwave Flexible Transistors on Cellulose Nanofibrillated Fiber Substrates, Applied Physics Letters, DOI: 10.1063/1.4921077

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24volts
not rated yet Jun 30, 2015
Just one little problem here.... those transistors are not use in the raw state... They are enclosed with plastic or ceramic and possibly even metal cases. So how are they supposed to degrade?
antialias_physorg
not rated yet Jul 01, 2015
They are enclosed with plastic or ceramic and possibly even metal cases. So how are they supposed to degrade?

Still, removing the casing is not a hard step to do (compared to what you would need to do to recycle current electronics.
If we can agree on a standardized packing material then other separation methods (magnetic or density based if you shredder all of it first) are viable and easy to implement.
swordsman
not rated yet Jul 01, 2015
The cellulose is a low temperature material, which produces temperature limitations. Nonetheless, it could be a very low cost solution that will help the market and reduce product cost.

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