New clues into how stem cells get their identity

May 6, 2015, University of Copenhagen
New clues into how stem cells get their identity

Scientists at the University of Copenhagen have identified one mechanism that explains how some stem cells choose to become a given cell type: the cells combine specific sets of proteins at precise positions along the DNA. When these particular groups of proteins are combined, the gates are opened so that certain groups of genes can now be used, giving the cells a new identity.

Scientists have now identified one of these combinations, which drive the cells along the path that allow them to become organs such as liver and pancreas. This latest research could lead scientists to a better understanding on how to generate in the laboratory to use as therapy for Type I diabetes.

The work has just been published in the journal Cell Stem Cell

Specificity - choosing the combinations

Scientists working under the leadership of Henrik Semb from the DanStem Center at the University of Copenhagen have explained how the acquisition of a new cell identity is achieved; cells respond to information from their surroundings, in turn activating a specific combination of proteins at certain places on the DNA, to turn on a genetic program.

"We added one particular chemical compound to the culture media to promote the generation of new cell types. The information transmitted by this compound is deciphered only by a small number of proteins. We then looked all along the cell's DNA to find the positions of the proteins that were activated by the compound. We repeated the experiment using additional compounds, to get an idea of how specific the responses were and to categorize the genes that the cells decided to use when being directed toward different cellular fates," says Assistant Professor Karen Schachter.

Getting the identity right

The work in the field of human research has concentrated on finding the correct combination of drugs or that can be used to drive the cells into specific cell types in the culture dish.

"There is however a lack of understanding of how these compounds activate the genes that give the cells unique identities, which has resulted in a lack of reproducibility of the methods used by different labs. As a comparison; if you use a pre-mixed powder to bake a cake you will face problems if you run out on an important ingredient and do not know how to replace its action. We believe that our study provides useful information that will help us to understand the recipe better, so that we can generate functional cells in a more controlled manner," adds Post doc Nina Funa.

There is already a lot of focus in the stem cell community to generate cells in the laboratory to use as therapy, so the scientists at DanStem want to emphasize the importance of continuing doing this important basic research work. "Our ultimate aim is to understand how make choices, which will also help improve the quality of the work that will put stem into therapeutic use," concludes Funa.

Explore further: Stem cells born out of indecision

More information: β-Catenin Regulates Primitive Streak Induction through Collaborative Interactions with SMAD2/SMAD3 and OCT4,

Related Stories

Stem cells born out of indecision

December 18, 2014

Scientists at the University of Copenhagen have gained new insight into embryonic stem cells and how blocking their ability to make choices explains why they stay as stem cells in culture. The results have just been published ...

New transitional stem cells discovered

April 16, 2015

Pre-eclampsia is a disease that affects 5 to 8 percent of pregnancies in America. Complications from this disease can lead to emergency cesarean sections early in pregnancies to save the lives of the infants and mothers. ...

Stem cells on the road to specialization

January 7, 2014

Scientists at the University of Copenhagen have gained new insight into how both early embryonic cells and embryonic stem cells are directed into becoming specialised cell types, like pancreatic and liver cells. The results ...

Dead feeder cells support stem cell growth

April 24, 2015

Stem cells naturally cling to feeder cells as they grow in petri dishes. Scientists have thought for years that this attachment occurs because feeder cells serve as a support system, providing stems cells with essential nutrients.

Recommended for you

Engineering cellular function without living cells

March 25, 2019

Genes in living cells are activated – or not – by proteins called transcription factors. The mechanisms by which these proteins activate certain genes and deactivate others play a fundamental role in many biological processes. ...

What ionized the universe?

March 25, 2019

The sparsely distributed hot gas that exists in the space between galaxies, the intergalactic medium, is ionized. The question is, how? Astronomers know that once the early universe expanded and cooled enough, hydrogen (its ...

Catalyst advance removes pollutants at low temperatures

March 25, 2019

Researchers at Washington State University, University of New Mexico, Eindhoven University of Technology, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed a catalyst that can both withstand high temperatures and convert ...


Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.