Within colors of bees and butterflies, an optical engineer's dream is realized

Within colors of bees and butterflies, an optical engineer’s dream is realized
The bright green coloring of a weevil is revealed as scales under a light microscope.

Evolution has created in bees, butterflies, and beetles something optical engineers have been struggling to achieve for years—precisely organized biophotonic crystals that can be used to improve solar cells, fiber-optic cables, and even cosmetics and paints, a new Yale-led study has found.

The Yale team used high-intensity X-rays at the Argonne National Laboratory in Chicago to investigate color-producing within hair-like structures that cover some species of , weevils and beetles, bees, and spiders and tarantulas. They found that the architecture of these nanostructures are identical to chemical polymers engineered by chemists and materials scientists, according to the report published May 14 in the journal Nano Letters.

Engineers, however, have had difficulty organizing these polymers in larger structures that would make them commercially feasible.

"These biophotonic nanostructures have the same shapes commonly seen in blends of large, synthetic, Lego-like molecules called block copolymers, developed by chemists," said lead author Vinod Saranathan, former Yale graduate student and now faculty member at Yale-NUS College in Singapore.

These artificial nanostructures need to be an order of magnitude larger—such as that found in the scales of beetles and butterflies—in order to interfere with light and make saturated colors. Engineers, chemists, and physicists currently find it difficult to control the self-assembly of synthetic polymers to achieve the desired shape of molecules over a large area, Saranathan said.

Within colors of bees and butterflies, an optical engineer’s dream is realized
The interior of the scales reveal photonics crystal, which mirrors nano structures designed by optical engineers but at a larger scale.

"Arthropods such as butterflies and , which have evolved over millions of years of selection, appear to routinely make these photonic nanostructures using self-assembly and at the desired optical scale just like in modern engineering approaches," said Richard Prum, the William Robertson Coe Professor in the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and senior author of the paper.

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Journal information: Nano Letters

Provided by Yale University
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May 15, 2015
Evolution has created...

Arthropods such as butterflies and beetles, which have evolved over millions of years of selection

The bacterial flagellum re-evolved in 4 days http://phys.org/n...tor.html

Viruses are linked to RNA-mediated cell type differentiation via entropic elasticity attributed to viral microRNAS and the anti-entropic epigenetic effects of nutrient-dependent microRNAs. The nutrient-dependent microRNAs link all crustaceans to all insects via their biophysically constrained chemistry of nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated protein folding.

Fixation of amino acid substitutions via the nutrient-dependent physiology of reproduction links the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction from microbes to humans.

That means you can start from creation of the first cell and link bacteriophages to genomic entropy and all pathology via mutations.

May 15, 2015
What you cannot do is link mutations via selection to evolution as a creative force -- unless, of course, you are a biologically uninformed theorist. If you are, you can link anything to anything with no consideration at all for the experimental evidence that links bacteriophages to mutations and pathology, but links the nutrient-dependent physiology of reproduction to heath and longevity.


May 22, 2015
So, what intelligent engineers, pooling their intelligence and resources, have been trying unsuccessfully to do for years, they simply assume chance random blind directionless meaningless mutations in combination with natural selection COULD do?

Well, that's 1 possible interpretation I guess. The scientific discovery & research here is top notch, but the interpretation is a bit doubtful in my eyes

Do they really know that evolution could "create" something as magnificent as this? No. It is simply the only possible option for them because they have arbitrarily ruled out any intelligence/intentionality from the start.

Evolution, with it's seemingly limitless miraculous powers & abilities boundless luck, is their only option so, no matter how incredulous or unlikely it may seem, they have to believe.

So, in spite of the fact that they have no idea how it could do this, they write their obligatory words of praise to the powers of evolution and all is well!

May 22, 2015
Thanks tj10

As we can see, evolutionary theorists are not going to respond to the fact that the pseudoscientific nonsense of their ridiculous theories has again been exposed. Exposure leads to their silence. Once again, they are dumbstruck by the efforts of those who are "Combating Evolution to Fight Disease" http://www.scienc...88.short

That's what intelligent serious scientists have been doing for several decades. See also:

"I forgot. How do mutations cause evolution?" http://rna-mediat...olution/

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