A repulsive material: New hydrogel properties dominated by electrostatic repulsion

December 30, 2014, RIKEN
A repulsive material: New hydrogel properties dominated by electrostatic repulsion
The word RIKEN is seen through the material in the orthogonal (i) and parallel (ii, iii) directions to the magnetically oriented TiNS plane.

In a world-first achievement, scientists from the RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science in Japan, along with colleagues from the National Institute of Material Science and the University of Tokyo, have developed a new hydrogel whose properties are dominated by electrostatic repulsion, rather than attractive interactions.

According to Yasuhiro Ishida, head of the Emergent Bioinspired Soft Matter Research Team, the work began from a surreptitious discovery, that when titanate nano-sheets are suspended in an aqueous colloidal dispersion, they align themselves face-to-face in a plane when subjected to a strong magnetic field. The field maximizes the between them and entices them into a quasi-crystalline structure. They naturally orient themselves face to face, separated by the between them.

To create the new material, the researchers used the newly discovered method to arrange layers of the sheets in a plane, and once the sheets were aligned in the plane, fixed the magnetically induced structural order by transforming the dispersion into a hydrogel using a procedure called light-triggered in-situ vinyl polymerization. Essentially, pulses of light are used to congeal the aqueous solution into a hydrogel, so that the sheets could no longer move.

By doing this, they created a material whose properties are dominated by electrostatic repulsion, the same force that makes our hair stand end when we touch a van generator.

Up to now, manmade have not taken advantage of this phenomenon, but nature has. Cartilage owes its ability to allow virtually frictionless mechanical motion within joints, even under high compression, to the electrostatic forces inside it. Electrostatic repulsive forces are used in various places, such as maglev trains, vehicle suspensions and noncontact bearings, but up to now, materials design has focused overwhelmingly on attractive interactions.

A repulsive material: New hydrogel properties dominated by electrostatic repulsion
On a mechanical oscillator, a glass stage featuring a metal sphere on a tee was supported by three cylindrical pillars of magnetically structured hydrogel containing cofacially oriented TiNSs (0.8 wt%) in parallel (g) or orthogonal (h) direction to the cylinder cross-section.

The resultant new material, which contains the first example of charged inorganic structures that align co-facially in a magnetic flux, has interesting properties. It easily deforms when shear forces are applied parallel to the embedded nano-sheets, but strongly resists compressive forces applied orthogonally.

According to Ishida, "This was a surprising discovery, but one that nature has already made use of. We anticipate that the concept of embedding anisotropic repulsive electrostatics within a composite material, based on inspiration from articular cartilage, will open new possibilities for developing soft materials with unusual functions. Materials of this kind could be used in the future in various areas from regenerative medicine to precise machine engineering, by allowing the creation of artificial cartilage, anti-vibration materials and other materials that require resistance to deformation in one plane."

A repulsive material: New hydrogel properties dominated by electrostatic repulsion
Cofacially oriented sheets in a 10-T magnetic flux were spatially immobilized with TiNS-mediated photoinduced crosslinking polymerization.

Explore further: Self-healing hydrogels ease into production

More information: Mingjie Liu, Yasuhiro Ishida, Yasuo Ebina, Takayoshi Sasaki, Takaaki Hikima, Masaki Takata, and Takuzo Aida, "An anisotropic hydrogel with electrostatic repulsion between cofacially aligned nanosheets", Nature, DOI: 10.1038/nature14060

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1 / 5 (2) Dec 31, 2014
Highly predictable result, but not by utilizing Quantum Mechanics. This is truly an electromagnetic effect that was predictable --- using my electromagnetic model of the atom:

"The Birth of an Atom - How Matter is Formed in the Universe", Adaptive Enterprises, 2010, Chapter IX, p. 61. (with proofs of validity)
Uncle Ira
3.7 / 5 (3) Dec 31, 2014
A repulsive material: ,,,

Never mind. I thought at first that JVK-Skippy finally got the nice peoples at physorg to do the article about his stinky love potion businesses. I read the article but I don't think that is what it's about.

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