Study shows how epigenetic memory is passed across generations

September 18, 2014
This image shows inheritance and transmission of the epigenetic mark H3K27me3 in C. elegans. The 1-cell embryo (left) shows the mark (green) inherited on sperm chromosomes but not on the oocyte chromosomes (pink) contributed by a mutant mother lacking the methylation enzyme PRC2. The 2-cell embryo (right) shows transmission of the mark on the sperm-derived chromosomes in each daughter nucleus. Credit: Laura J. Gaydos

A growing body of evidence suggests that environmental stresses can cause changes in gene expression that are transmitted from parents to their offspring, making "epigenetics" a hot topic. Epigenetic modifications do not affect the DNA sequence of genes, but change how the DNA is packaged and how genes are expressed. Now, a study by scientists at the University of California, Santa Cruz, shows how epigenetic memory can be passed across generations and from cell to cell during development.

The study, published September 19 in Science, focused on one well studied epigenetic modification—the methylation of a DNA packaging protein called histone H3. Methylation of a particular amino acid (lysine 27) in histone H3 is known to turn off or "repress" genes, and this epigenetic mark is found in all multicellular animals, from humans to the tiny roundworm C. elegans that was used in this study.

"There has been ongoing debate about whether the methylation mark can be passed on through cell divisions and across generations, and we've now shown that it is," said corresponding author Susan Strome, a professor of molecular, cell and developmental biology at UC Santa Cruz.

Strome's lab created worms with a mutation that knocks out the enzyme responsible for making the methylation mark, then bred them with normal worms. Using fluorescent labels, they were able to track the fates of marked and unmarked chromosomes under the microscope, from egg cells and sperm to the dividing cells of embryos after fertilization. Embryos from mutant egg cells fertilized by normal sperm had six methylated chromosomes (from the sperm) and six unmarked or "naked" chromosomes (from the egg).

As embryos develop, the cells replicate their chromosomes and divide. The researchers found that when a marked chromosome replicates, the two daughter chromosomes are both marked. But without the enzyme needed for histone methylation, the marks become progressively diluted with each .

"The mark stays on the chromosomes derived from the initial chromosome that had the mark, but there's not enough mark for both daughter chromosomes to be fully loaded," Strome said. "So the mark is bright in a one-cell embryo, less bright after the cell divides, dimmer still in a four-cell embryo, and by about 24 to 48 cells we can't see it anymore."

The researchers then did the converse experiment, fertilizing normal egg cells with mutant sperm. The methylation enzyme (called PRC2) is normally present in but not in sperm, which don't contribute much more than their chromosomes to the embryo. So the embryos in the new experiment still had six naked chromosomes (this time from the sperm) and six marked chromosomes, but now they also had the enzyme.

"Remarkably, when we watch the chromosomes through cell divisions, the marked chromosomes remain marked and stay bright, because the enzyme keeps restoring the mark, but the naked stay naked, division after division," Strome said. "That shows that the pattern of marks that was inherited is being transmitted through multiple cell divisions."

Strome noted that the findings in this study of transmission of histone methylation in C. elegans have important implications in other organisms, even though different organisms use the repressive marker that was studied to regulate different genes during different aspects of development. All animals use the same enzyme to create the same methylation mark as a signal for gene repression, and her colleagues who study epigenetics in mice and humans are excited about the new findings, Strome said.

"Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance is not a solved field—it's very much in flux," she said. "There are dozens of potential epigenetic markers. In studies that document parent-to-child epigenetic inheritance, it's not clear what's being passed on, and understanding it molecularly is very complicated. We have a specific example of epigenetic memory that is passed on, and we can see it in the microscope. It's one piece of the puzzle."

Explore further: Researchers use new technique to shed light on inherited diseases

More information: "H3K27me and PRC2 transmit a memory of repression across generations and during development," by L.J. Gaydos et al. Science, 2014: www.sciencemag.org/lookup/doi/ … 1126/science.1255023

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DonGateley
1 / 5 (3) Sep 18, 2014
Lysenko grins.
NOM
5 / 5 (10) Sep 18, 2014
Serious scientists are still waiting ...
Compared to a serious scientist, you have two pencils up your nose and underpants on your head.
JVK
1 / 5 (10) Sep 18, 2014
http://perfumingt...ehavior/

"See: Maleszka et al (2013). They link oxidation of 5Mc to 5hmC from the main pathway that removes methyl tags from the genome to brain-increased levels of 5hmC in gene bodies that correlate with active transcription.

Excerpt: "Within the neuronal function-related genes, gain of 5hmC is accompanied by loss of H3K27me3…"

Taken together with what is known about nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled cell type differentiation via amino acid substitutions in the honeybee and other model organisms, a model of RNA-mediated cause and effect suggests learning and memory of food odors and species-specific pheromones links transgenerational epigenetic inheritance via the molecular mechanisms that transmit a 'memory of repression,' which can be linked to behavior."
Whydening Gyre
5 / 5 (7) Sep 18, 2014
Testing the snake-detection hypothesis: Larger early posterior negativity in humans to pictures of snakes than to pictures of other reptiles, spiders and slugs http://www.fronti...14.00691

And this indicates what? Revulsion to snakes more than other creatures is nutrient dependent? Pheremone controlled?
No, it's a culturally dependent phenomenon. We were raised in the Western world with the concept that a snake talked Eve into acting against a god's commandment. is all.
Try this on apes or monkeys and see what the result is. Bet it ain't the same at all.
JVK
1 / 5 (11) Sep 18, 2014
The conserved molecular mechanisms of cell type differentiation via amino acid substitutions in plants and animals suggests RNA-mediated events but not evolutionary events link ecological variation to ecological adaptations via transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of morphological AND behavioral phenotypes. This article addresses "...epigenetic memory that is passed on, and we can see it in the microscope." My publications address the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of behaviors.

See also:
"Variation at position 31 between H3.1 and replication-independent H3.3 is conserved in plants and animals, and threonine-31 in H3.3 is responsible for inhibiting the activity of ATXR5 and its paralog, ATXR6. Our results suggest a simple model for the mitotic inheritance of the heterochromatic mark H3K27me1 and the protection of H3.3-enriched genes against heterochromatization during DNA replication."
http://www.scienc...abstract
I Have Questions
5 / 5 (7) Sep 19, 2014
The conserved molecular mechanisms of cell type differentiation via amino acid substitutions in plants and animals suggests RNA-mediated events but not evolutionary events link ecological variation to ecological adaptations via transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of morphological AND behavioral phenotypes. This article addresses "...epigenetic memory that is passed on, and we can see it in the microscope." My publications address the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of behaviors.

See also:
"Variation at position 31 between H3.1 and replication-independent H3.3 is conserved in plants and animals, and threonine-31 in H3.3 is responsible for inhibiting the activity of ATXR5 and its paralog, ATXR6. Our results suggest a simple model for the mitotic inheritance of the heterochromatic mark H3K27me1 and the protection of H3.3-enriched genes against heterochromatization during DNA replication."
http://www.scienc...abstract

Your pathology is fascinating.
alfie_null
5 / 5 (5) Sep 19, 2014
I think it tells evolutionary theorists they should consider becoming serious scientists because their ridiculous ideas about mutations, natural selection, and evolution are nothing more than pseudoscientific nonsense.

And here you are, preaching to an audience comprised largely of laypersons. Folks not well equipped to offer critical review. That how a "real scientist" would act?
JVK
1 / 5 (8) Sep 19, 2014
My publication history includes the first review of molecular epigenetics and RNA-mediated cell type differentiation, which was published in 1996. That's what real scientists do: present and publish.

Here is a 5.5 minute video from my last presentation that you -- as a layperson -- can compare to everything you have been taught to believe occurs due to some evolutionary event - even thought no evolutionary event has ever been described that links biologically-based cause and effect to biodiversity via conserved molecular mechanisms. http://youtu.be/DbH_Rj9U524

What makes you think I'm 'preaching' instead of merely attempting to inform an audience of people taught to believe in the pseudoscientific nonsense of mutations, natural selection, and the evolution of biodiversity?

http://www.odedre...out.aspx "Our principle aim in the lab is to attack scientific dogmas. Mainly, we aim to use powerful genetic tools to discover novel biological principles by which RNA affects..."
I Have Questions
5 / 5 (6) Sep 19, 2014
I think it tells evolutionary theorists they should consider becoming serious scientists because their ridiculous ideas about mutations, natural selection, and evolution are nothing more than pseudoscientific nonsense.

And here you are, preaching to an audience comprised largely of laypersons. Folks not well equipped to offer critical review. That how a "real scientist" would act?


Believe me that guy is nothing more than a crackpot.
JVK
1 / 5 (6) Sep 19, 2014
Why should anyone who posts anonymously be believed in comparison to someone who has detailed how the epigenetic landscape is linked to the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genomes of species from microbes to man via conserved molecular mechanisms of epigenetically-effected molecular memory detailed in this article and in their published work?

In 1996, we detailed what they just showed occurs via the mechanisms they have detailed. See: http://www.hawaii...ion.html

"Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans..."

We linked control of behavior to the same molecular mechanisms yet the article claims "... it's not clear what's being passed on..." How could anything that's passed on not require a concurrent change in behavior?
I Have Questions
5 / 5 (6) Sep 19, 2014
My publication history includes the first review of molecular epigenetics and RNA-mediated cell type differentiation, which was published in 1996. That's what real scientists do: present and publish.

Here is a 5.5 minute video from my last presentation that you -- as a layperson -- can compare to everything you have been taught to believe occurs due to some evolutionary event - even thought no evolutionary event has ever been described that links biologically-based cause and effect to biodiversity via conserved molecular mechanisms. http://youtu.be/DbH_Rj9U524 "Our principle aim in the lab is to attack scientific dogmas. Mainly, we aim to use powerful genetic tools to discover novel biological principles by which RNA affects..."


Tell me how many people attended your presentation? Don't you think it would have been better to let someone else hold your cell phone?
JVK
1 / 5 (5) Sep 19, 2014
It's not so much the presentation that matters; I did the no-budget video as an afterthought. It's publication that counts - as in Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model. http://www.ncbi.n...24693353

The article has been viewed more than 7000 times since January (2014). That fact attests to a degree of unparalleled interest in accurate representations of biologically-based RNA-mediated events linked to cause and effect that have just again been supported by the experimental evidence reported in this news article.

Do you think anyone is surprised to learn that you -- like all the other anonymous posters to what could be intelligent discussions -- are just another crackpot?
I Have Questions
5 / 5 (5) Sep 19, 2014
It's not so much the presentation that matters; I did the no-budget video as an afterthought. It's publication that counts - as in Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model. http://www.ncbi.n...24693353

The article has been viewed more than 7000 times since January (2014). That fact attests to a degree of unparalleled interest in accurate representations of biologically-based RNA-mediated events linked to cause and effect that have just again been supported by the experimental evidence reported in this news article.

Do you think anyone is surprised to learn that you -- like all the other anonymous posters to what could be intelligent discussions -- are just another crackpot?

Why is it so important for you to save us all form the fake science of evolution?
Whydening Gyre
5 / 5 (5) Sep 19, 2014
Have Questions,
He is doing his own SEO....
Every time you quote his posts, it adds up for him...
I Have Questions
5 / 5 (2) Sep 19, 2014
It's not so much the presentation that matters; I did the no-budget video as an afterthought. It's publication that counts - as in Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model. http://www.ncbi.n...24693353

The article has been viewed more than 7000 times since January (2014). That fact attests to a degree of unparalleled interest in accurate representations of biologically-based RNA-mediated events linked to cause and effect that have just again been supported by the experimental evidence reported in this news article.

Do you think anyone is surprised to learn that you -- like all the other anonymous posters to what could be intelligent discussions -- are just another crackpot?

I noticed that you have studied human pheromones and even written a book about it.

http://www.amazon...26406777

Everybody knows that scientists have yet to conclusively identify a single such chemical in humans. That right there is enough to expose you as a crackpot.

I bet that selling the pheromone concoctions your work supports is quit lucrative. Would you happen to be involved with any of the businesses that sale these pheromone concoctions?
I Have Questions
5 / 5 (3) Sep 19, 2014
Have Questions,
He is doing his own SEO....
Every time you quote his posts, it adds up for him...

I'll stop quoting his posts. What is SEO?.
JVK
1 / 5 (6) Sep 19, 2014
Everybody knows that scientists have yet to conclusively identify a single such chemical in humans. That right there is enough to expose you as a crackpot.


Everyone knows that Humans Can Discriminate More than 1 Trillion Olfactory Stimuli, which makes anyone who claims there are no human pheromones a crackpot. http://www.scienc...abstract

For example see the book by Richard L. Doty: The Great Pheromone Myth

"For more than 50 years researchers -- including many prominent scientists -- have identified pheromones as the triggers for a wide range of mammalian behaviors and endocrine responses. In this provocative treatise, renowned olfaction expert Richard L. Doty rejects this idea and states bluntly that -- in contrast to insects -- pheromones in mammals do not exist."

He sells smell tests for odor detection and has missed the opportunity to include detection of pheromones associated with neurodegenerative diseases.
JVK
1 / 5 (6) Sep 19, 2014
Why is it so important for you to save us all form the fake science of evolution?


It's important to present biological facts so that others can learn the difference between pseudoscientific nonsense and how ecological variation leads to ecological adaptations.

That led to the teaching of evolutionary theory (i.e., pseudoscientific nonsense) in Israeli middle-schools so that students could learn the difference between a ridiculous theory and biological facts at the same time they learned about ecology.

"...learning about evolution is not the primary function of the decision, but rather to use it as a building block for students to learn more about their ecology."
http://www.educat...olution/

See also: Combating Evolution to Fight Disease http://www.scienc...88.short

LIke me, others would like to eliminate ignorance, but HERE it prevails
Whydening Gyre
5 / 5 (4) Sep 19, 2014
Have Questions,
He is doing his own SEO....
Every time you quote his posts, it adds up for him...

I'll stop quoting his posts. What is SEO?.

Search Engine Optimization.
JVK
1 / 5 (6) Sep 19, 2014
Keyword RNA-mediated gene silencing http://www.unipro.../KW-0943

I should not be the only one to know how RNA-mediated events are linked to cell type differentiation via amino acid substitutions that differentiate the cell types of all individuals in all species.

Evolutionary theorists must learn about biologically-based cause and effect to avoid touting the pseudoscientific nonsense of population genetics or claiming that "WE" don't know how transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of morphological and behavioral phenotypes works.

It "works" via conserved molecular mechanisms in species from microbes to man that we detailed our 1996 review: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior
http://www.hawaii...ion.html

"..epigenetic imprinting occurs in species as diverse as yeast, Drosophila, mice, and humans and is based upon small DNA-binding proteins called "chromo domain" proteins, e.g., polycomb. These proteins..."
I Have Questions
5 / 5 (5) Sep 19, 2014
JVK,

Look what I found!

http://pheromones...TrT.dpbs

Here you are listed as the sole contact for that business.

http://pheromones...wC6.dpbs

Congratulations you have now been promoted to the prestigious level of snake oil salesman. You are right up there with the people that sale pills that are supposed to make your penis bigger.

Scientists have yet to conclusively identify a single pheromone in humans. Humans do not make pheromones so why would you be influenced if you smell them? Since humans don't make pheromones I take it that you must synthesize them in a lab or do you just use a little dog urine?

Just because humans can discriminate more than 1 trillion olfactory stimuli doesn't mean that humans can smell human pheromones. Is your thinking here that humans can smell a huge number of things so one of them must be pheromones?

Human pheromones are nothing more then PSEUDOSCIENCE and it shows.

Sincerely,

IHQ
JVK
1 / 5 (6) Sep 19, 2014
Human pheromones and nutrient chemicals: epigenetic effects on ecological, social, and neurogenic niches that affect behavior http://f1000.com/.../1092668

The Mind's Eyes: Human pheromones, neuroscience, and male sexual preferences
http://www.sexarc...kohl.htm

Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology
http://www.nel.ed...view.htm

http://www.amazon...99737673

p. 210 This model is attractive in that it solves the "binding problem" of sexual attraction. By that I mean the problem of why all the different features of men or women (visual appearance and feel of face, body, and genitals; voice quality, smell; personality and behavior, etc.) attract people as a more or less coherent package representing one sex, rather than as an arbitrary collage of male and female characteristics.
JVK
1 / 5 (6) Sep 19, 2014
The only reason to pheromones is that they control nutrient-dependent cell type differentiation in species from microbes to man. Thus, the issue is the pseudoscientific nonsense touted by theorists that led to the claim in this news article:

"... it's not clear what's being passed on, and understanding it molecularly is very complicated. We have a specific example of epigenetic memory that is passed on, and we can see it in the microscope. It's one piece of the puzzle."

How can it not be clear that the epigenetic landscape is linked to the physical landscape of DNA via RNA-mediated events in species from microbes to man? No other mechanism has been described, no evolutionary event has been described and yet transgerational epigentic inheritance of morphological and behavioral phenotypes via RNA-mediated event have been fully detailed.
http://jp.physoc....abstract "Non‐coding RNAs as the bridge between epigenetic mechanisms, lineages and domains of life."
I Have Questions
5 / 5 (2) Sep 19, 2014
JVK, have you written any papers that have been peer reviewed?
JVK
1 / 5 (6) Sep 19, 2014
Two award-winning peer reviewed papers were linked above:

1) "The Mind's Eyes: Human pheromones, neuroscience, and male sexual preferences"
was concurrently published in The Handbook of the Evolution of Human Sexuality

2) "Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology" has been cited 80 times.

From fertilization to adult sexual behavior (1996) http://www.scienc...96900409 led others to use our approach in a model of invertebrate behavior linked to the life cycle transitions of honeybees.

The honeybee is the model organism of how the epigenetic landscape becomes the physical
landscape of DNA in the organized genomes of species from microbes to man via RNA-mediated events that eliminate the pseudoscientific nonsense of mutations, natural selection and the evolution of biodiversity from any further consideration whatsoever.

See for review: http://bfg.oxford...050.long

Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (4) Sep 19, 2014
I'll stop quoting his posts. What is SEO?.
@I Have Questions
Also, don't post his name or anything about his work
Use an acronym or something like jk (short for JOKE, which is also his initials... pretty fitting, considering)
jk is trying to convince people that evolution is wrong and his creationist ideas are right
he is also anti-mutation, even though his own model causes mutations per his own admission! I asked him
DOES your model make any changes to the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal genetic element?
This is a yes or no answer
(This is the DEFINITION of mutation) to which he answered
YES!
--Thanks for asking
jk failed out of college (self admitted on this site) because he couldn't learn the basics... and claims to be a diagnostician as well in other threads (reported to the authorities)
he is a lab tech who wants to talk big and feel important, that is why he is here on a pop-sci site and ignored at AAAS Science Mag.

Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (4) Sep 19, 2014
JVK, have you written any papers that have been peer reviewed?
@I Have Questions
Your best bet would be to contact the original authors about papers instead of talking to jk... he is not capable of talking to you without religious bias and he ignores empirical data and evidence...
Read this page first: http://freethough...s-place/

Myers teaches you all about the pseudoscience of jk
then go to this page: http://myxo.css.m...dex.html

Lenski pretty much blasts jk's idiocy right out of the water and makes a fool of him
actually, jk makes a fool of himself... Lenski provided the proof that mutations are selected for and are beneficial, and that jk's continual denigration of mutations and evolution is based upon his own personal life failures and delusions regarding religion and more

THANKS for asking good questions though!
JVK
1 / 5 (7) Sep 19, 2014
More than 60 blog posts among over 1000 others link RNA-mediated events from ecological variation to ecological adaptations in species from microbes to man without the pseudoscientific nonsense of evolutionary theory.

http://perfumingt...bmit.y=0

I Have Questions says
Look what I found!
when he probably could not find the nose on his face. For example, he couldn't find any of my peer reviewed papers, when a PuBMed search is all that's required to do so.

http://www.ncbi.n...=Kohl+JV

See also the related citations, which include this one: Genetic control of sex differences in C. elegans neurobiology and behavior. http://www.ncbi.n...17888793

Ask yourself: How much longer will it be until evolutionary theorists realize that RNA-mediated events lead to sex differences in cell types and all other differences in cell types that they seem to think are due to mutations and natural selection?
JVK
1 / 5 (6) Sep 19, 2014
Re Lenski's works: http://perfumingt...bmit.y=0

Re: PZ Myers and his idiot minions
http://perfumingt...mit.y=19

Re:
jk is trying to convince people that evolution is wrong and his creationist ideas are right
Staff Sergeant Stumpy suffered a traumatic brain injury in an explosion that led him to become one of PZ Myers' idiot minions. Most appear to be brain-damaged believers in the pseudoscientific nonsense of evolutionary theory, that serious scientists realize must be removed from consideration to fight disease.

See Combating Evolution to Fight Disease http://www.scienc...88.short

I Have Questions
5 / 5 (3) Sep 19, 2014
jk, here are some things I found that lead me to believe that what you are selling is bull chit.

"Many perfume companies have tried to capitalize on the potential sex-specific effects of these chemicals by adding them to their fragrances. But most of these companies add hormones from animals such as pigs and deer, so they probably don't work. Pheromones are generally species-specific, so a perfume enhanced with pig pheromones is really only useful for other pigs."

http://www.pherx....ews.html

"According to thousands of web sites which promise sexual conquests if you buy their pills, human pheromones exist - bear in mind that their aim is to get you to buy their products. However, most proper well-controlled scientific studies have failed to show any compelling evidence."

http://www.medica...2635.php

The failure to identify human pheromones has not stopped some enterprising individuals from trying to make a profit from love potions purporting to contain pheromones. In reality, these products often use pig pheromones. "They don't have any history in the biomedical literature—they just fell out of the sky," says olfactory neuroscientist Charles Wysocki, also of Monell. For now, the idea of perfumes and potions based on human pheromonal communication just doesn't pass the sniff test.

http://www.scient...es-real/

"Some researchers, such as Richard Doty, PhD, editor of the Handbook of Olfaction and Gustation and a professor at the University of Pennsylvania, believe the term should be used only in the narrowest sense--in part because those who use looser definitions can label and sell almost anything as a pheromone.

In 50 years, nobody's really identified a [mammalian] pheromone that will hold up to any sort of criteria, with the exception of maybe one or two," he argues. "My view is that the whole thing is primarily driven by the perfume industry, and when looked at carefully sort of falls apart."

http://www.apa.or...ame.aspx

"Without any actual chemicals identified as pheromones, scientists can't test effects on humans, so the jury is out as to whether we communicate via pheromones."

http://www.livesc...ity.html

JVK
1 / 5 (6) Sep 19, 2014
My comment to Science on the publication of this article in Science is here:

http://comments.s....1255023

I look forward to comments by others whose comments to Science also might be accepted, but don't expect to see any comments from PZ Myers or any of his idiot minions.
JVK
1 / 5 (6) Sep 20, 2014
...nobody's really identified a [mammalian] pheromone... with the exception of maybe one or two," he argues. "My view is that the whole thing is primarily driven by the perfume industry, and when looked at carefully sort of falls apart."


No one in the perfume industry wants to take on the liability of a product that might exemplify what we reported in "Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology"

I used a mixture of androstenol and androsterone in one of my products because studies reported "Effects of 5alpha-androst-16-en-3alpha-ol on the pulsatile secretion of luteinizing hormone in human females" http://chemse.oxf...465.long and "Axillary pheromones modulate pulsatile LH secretion in humans" http://www.ncbi.n...11303754 and "Male axillary extracts contain pheromones that affect pulsatile secretion of luteinizing hormone and mood in women recipients" http://www.ncbi.n...12606409
JVK
1 / 5 (6) Sep 20, 2014
Others who showed an effect on hormones never linked it to an affect on behavior because they don't know the difference between an epigenetic effect on hormones and how hormones are linked to species-specific affects on behavior.

You start with primate specificity of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and work from there to find a sexually dimorphic species specific metabolite of the most abundantly produced human steroid hormone to find something you can use in a mixture to affect behavior. Sensory psychologists like Doty don't know where to start, or how to design a study, so they ignore results from others that clearly indicate cause and effect via conserved molecular mechanisms in species from microbes to man.

Efforts by others to educate the ignorant psychologists have failed. Patents are abandoned.

Pheromones and the luteinizing hormone for inducing proliferation of neural stem cells and neurogenesis http://www.freshp...8009.php

Who cares?
I Have Questions
5 / 5 (4) Sep 20, 2014
Captain Stumpy, I figured jk was religiously motivated when I noticed that his presentation was filmed in a church.
I Have Questions
5 / 5 (4) Sep 20, 2014
jk, are you confirming that you do indeed use pig pheromones in your shady products?

"Androstenol is a sex pheromone in pigs, possessing a musk-like odor."

http://en.wikiped...rostenol
Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (5) Sep 20, 2014
My comment to Science on the publication of this article in Science is here:

http://comments.s....1255023

I look forward to comments by others whose comments to Science also might be accepted, but don't expect to see any comments from PZ Myers or any of his idiot minions.

your comment is also being completely ignored as a crackpot post by yet another 'idiot religious minion" who doesn't know how to SCIENCE and ignore the religion

Science is about FACTS
religion is about NO FACTS
faith is the belief in something WITHOUT FACTS

science wins
you lose, jk
EPIC FAILURE

and BY THE WAY... you were given chances to discuss the SCIENCE with Myers... and all you did was push your CRACKPOT hypothesis

and I am NOT clicking your idiot pheromone site

IT IS PSEUDOSCIENCE
already established in other threads

http://sci-ence.o...-flags2/
Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (5) Sep 20, 2014
Captain Stumpy, I figured jk was religiously motivated when I noticed that his presentation was filmed in a church.
@I Have Questions
Yeah... and his so called "Science" is thinly veiled BS too
SOME of it is legit, though

His problem is that he cannot comprehend REALITY
and he failed to finish the basics to learn about it to boot!
He wants to redefine the lexicon of the biology/genetics field to suit his idiotic inability to comprehend certain subjects, like mutation
he wants to argue against single mutation speciation (an already hot topic)
Worse yet, he cannot comprehend the experiments like Lenski and how it makes a complete idiot of his diatribe above as well as in other threads... Lenski's experiments alone are enough to prove jk is definitely NOT mensa material OR capable of being logical or comprehending biological cause and effect

If you have to visit his site, download TOR ( https://www.torproject.org/ ) so he can't snag your IP address

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