SMA unveils how small cosmic seeds grow into big stars

February 26, 2014
SMA unveils how small cosmic seeds grow into big stars
These two panels show the Snake nebula as photographed by the Spitzer and Herschel space telescopes. At mid-infrared wavelengths (the upper panel taken by Spitzer), the thick nebular material blocks light from more distant stars. At far-infrared wavelengths, however (the lower panel taken by Herschel), the nebula glows due to emission from cold dust. The two boxed regions, P1 and P6, were examined in more detail by the Submillimeter Array. Credit: Spitzer/GLIMPSE/MIPS, Herschel/HiGal, Ke Wang, European Southern Observatory

New images from the Smithsonian's Submillimeter Array (SMA) telescope provide the most detailed view yet of stellar nurseries within the Snake nebula. These images offer new insights into how cosmic seeds can grow into massive stars.

Stretching across almost 100 light-years of space, the Snake nebula is located about 11,700 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Ophiuchus. In images from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope it appears as a sinuous, dark tendril against the starry background. It was targeted because it shows the potential to form many (stars heavier than 8 times our Sun).

"To learn how stars form, we have to catch them in their earliest phases, while they're still deeply embedded in clouds of gas and dust, and the SMA is an excellent telescope to do so," explained lead author Ke Wang of the European Southern Observatory (ESO), who started the research as a predoctoral fellow at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA).

The team studied two specific spots within the Snake nebula, designated P1 and P6. Within those two regions they detected a total of 23 cosmic "seeds" - faintly glowing spots that will eventually birth one or a few stars. The seeds generally weigh between 5 and 25 times the mass of the Sun, and each spans only a few thousand astronomical units (the average Earth-Sun distance). The sensitive, high-resolution SMA images not only unveil the small seeds, but also differentiate them in age.

Previous theories proposed that high-mass stars form within very massive, isolated "cores" weighing at least 100 times the mass of the Sun. These new results show that that is not the case. The data also demonstrate that massive stars aren't born alone but in groups.

"High-mass stars form in villages," said co-author Qizhou Zhang of the CfA. "It's a family affair."

The team also was surprised to find that these two nebular patches had fragmented into individual star seeds so early in the star formation process.

They detected bipolar outflows and other signs of active, ongoing star formation. Eventually, the Snake nebula will dissolve and shine as a chain of several star clusters.

Explore further: SMA reveals giant star cluster in the making

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5 / 5 (2) Feb 26, 2014
The snake nebula is only one small part of the larger group called the dark horse nebula, located between the spiral arms of our galaxy. I can't help but wonder about the origin of this kind of nebula. That's way too much mass to be the remnant of something that was destroyed earlier, so it must be primordial in origin. That makes me wonder why it hasn't already condensed into stars long ago, and why it is doing so now.
1 / 5 (5) Feb 26, 2014
So confusing Mr Swift?

Exactly. Regions of high matter density provide the conditions for the plants to grow from the underlying etheric nutrients. These stars grow from within, growing big and active, ejecting new material forming the surrounding nebula that his so confusing for you. So the star-forming nebula are a consequence of the very active stars within it, not the prerequisite for the stars to form.

See why I find modern astronomers to be so dumb? They have everything backwards.
5 / 5 (2) Feb 26, 2014
@Tuxford...'...etheric nutrients...'?
GSwift7 have you seen the 0.9mm picture of the '?' shape in the rgeion. Almost like some kind of 'path'. Am interested in your comment on that?
5 / 5 (2) Feb 27, 2014
GSwift7 have you seen the 0.9mm picture of the '?' shape in the rgeion.

Yes, the shapes of nebulae are very curious. It is difficult to imagine the history that leads to how they look today and the sources of their material.

Keep in mind that the actual objects are much larger than the part in that photograph. The familiar pictures usually just show dust pockets suspended in much larger molecular clouds, composed of more transparent materials like carbon dioxide and amonia molecules.

Still, the dust clouds in the middle of the larger molecular clouds seem curious to me. They must get their heavier elements from old stars, but the dust seems so uniform, well-mixed and scattered, to the point that it doesn't collapse into stars often.

I wonder if the dust clouds are strewn with comet-like objects and planetessimals? We wouldn't see that stuff from here, but logic suggests that they should form via condensation of the cold gas and dust.
1 / 5 (2) Feb 27, 2014
Systems theory can show that under proper conditions, automatic self-sustaining reactions can take place as long as the components of the reaction are available, much like a burning fire. For example, the chemical clock oscillator:


LaViolette has applied this idea to physics to yield a theory which seems to explain the unexplainable astronomical observations that are recently so confusing the community. It includes a diffusive medium (everywhere) of components too small to ever be observed, whose components auto-react under proper diffusive concentration patterns to produce sub-atomic particles. The smallest particle of our universe is not an object, but a propagating reaction of etheric nutrients too small to ever be observed. (There is plenty of empty space at this level, filled with etheric nutrients.)
Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (3) Feb 27, 2014

as in PAUL A. LaVIOLETTE ( )?
Ok... he may have had some genuine insights to astrophysics/physics and legitimate papers, however, when someone publishes THIS on a web-site
Aided by his background in general system theory and physics, he was able to successfully decipher the lost science said to be encoded in the lores of the Tarot and astrology.


given what is on this link ( ) then I would say that the man KNOWS HOW TO MAKE A BUCK

this is an intelligent man cashing in on the stupidity and gullibility of the modern scientifically illiterate person and he seems to be doing it well!

IMO- unless you can provide peer reviewed empirical data that is supported via others, I would be skeptical of him.

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