Quantum-to-classical transition may be explained by fuzziness of measurement references

(Phys.org) —The quantum and classical worlds are clearly very different, but how a physical system transitions between them is much less clear. The most well-known attempt to explain the quantum-to-classical transition is decoherence, which is the idea that interactions with the environment destroy quantum coherence, causing a quantum system to become classical.

But in more recent years, physicists have been investigating alternative explanations based on an observer's limited ability to control the precision of the measurements made on a system. The idea is that a system that appears to exhibit quantum behavior when observed with very precise measurements will appear to behave classically if the measurements are too coarse or fuzzy. In such a scenario, the coarsening of measurements forces the quantum-to-classical transition.

The problem is, fuzziness in measurements does not always result in the quantum-to-classical transition, and physicists aren't sure what exact conditions of the measurement process are necessary to definitively force the quantum-to-classical transition.

In a new study published in Physical Review Letters, physicists Hyunseok Jeong and Youngrong Lim at Seoul National University in Seoul, Korea, and M. S. Kim at Imperial College London in the UK, have proposed an explanation.

They explain that a complete measurement process is composed of two parts: one part is to set and control a measurement reference (such as timing or angle), and the other is the final detection. All of the previous studies have focused on coarsening the resolution of the final detection.

Here, the physicists looked at both parts of the measurement process and found that their coarsening leads to completely different outcomes. Their main result is that coarsening the measurement reference always forces the quantum-to-classical transition, while coarsening the final detection does not. This is because increasing the "macroscopicity" of the system, such as by increasing the number of photons in an entangled photon state, can make up for the coarseness of the final detection, but not for the coarseness of the measurement reference.

"Our results reveal a previously unknown yet very critical element in the process of the quantum-to-classical transition," Jeong told Phys.org. "In the previous research along this line, researchers have paid attention to coarsening of the measurement resolution (i.e., efficiency of the final detection) to explain the quantum-to-classical transition, but it does not result in the quantum-to-classical transition under certain conditions. On the other hand, coarsening of the measurement references provides a stronger mechanism to explain the quantum-to-classical transition, as far as we could see, without an exception. Our results provide new insights into the quantum-to-classical transition and deepen the understanding of the measurement process by revealing the importance of the observer's ability in controlling the measurement references."

The researchers explain that coarsening and decoherence are complementary explanations of the same problem.

"The approach based on coarsening of measurements enables one to explain a part of the quantum-to-classical transition that cannot be explained by decoherence and vice versa," Jeong said. "They are not contradictory to each other, nor does one of them replace the other."

The analysis suggests that this finding holds true for a wide range of physical systems, such as optical, atomic, and mechanical, and for systems using various degrees of freedom. In the future, the researchers hope to further investigate the extent of these results.

"We hope to provide a more general and complete picture of the quantum-to-classical transition in our future research," Jeong said. "In our published work, we investigated several different types of physical systems in order to support our claim. There exists, however, an interesting open problem to formally prove our claim in a completely general way for arbitrary systems. In general, we will further explore the boundaries between the quantum and classical worlds to understand and clarify when and how quantum systems become classical and vice versa."

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More information: Hyunseok Jeong, Youngrong Lim, and M. S. Kim. "Coarsening Measurement References and the Quantum-to-Classical Transition." Physical Review Letters, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.010402
Also available at arXiv:1307.3746 [quant-ph]
Journal information: Physical Review Letters

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Citation: Quantum-to-classical transition may be explained by fuzziness of measurement references (2014, January 14) retrieved 22 September 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-01-quantum-to-classical-transition-fuzziness.html
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User comments

Jan 14, 2014
Can anyone explain to me why I'm always reading articles about people investigating the quantum-classical transition? I'm a physicist and I just don't see the relevance of it. Is it just for the sake of more efficient approximation methods, like knowing which equations you can run on your computer at which scale? Or is there something here that I'm just not getting?

Jan 14, 2014
at the end of the day, we're not *precisely* sure what's happening in a quantum mechanical measurement. We know our detector registers some energy corresponding to a spin up or down state (for example); but what happened between the particle that doesn't appear to have either state and now its having a definite state? Yes, I get that for most physicists, QM is a lot of "shut up and calculate," but it is nice to have someone looking into this broader question of the interaction between a classical detector and a quantum observation.

Jan 14, 2014
More than two month ago the Quantum theory was unified with Classical physics and Gravitation. Actually within the framework of the Einstein – Cartan – Schrödinger program developed since 1950-th, there appears some progress. A paper has been published recently in which the fundamental sense of the Quantum Theory is revealed. In this paper the Planck constant is calculated from first principles (from geometry of our Universe), and physical sense of the cosmological constant is revealed.
The paper is published in journal and can be obtained here:
or a little bit reduced version can be find here:

Jan 15, 2014
Might also be a question of technology too. While we are using chemical fuels then classical physics seems to apply pretty well...at least in my rocket books. But when technology reaches the stage where it is a 'middle of the road' combination & v becomes appreciably higher then perhaps classical physics used might need some 'adjustment'. If we ever get to a reasonable fraction of c then we'll prbably be using most QM.

Jan 15, 2014
I always thought this bridging was needed for a sort of "amplification" of QM test results, like QM's sadistic need to slay cats or a GPS satellite amplifies the results of time dilation by discrepancy in distance of an exact location.

I fail to understand or completely misinterpret the article how it should make a measurement more accurate (?)

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