Overhead costs of fusion power plants can be reduced by planning reactor maintenance and structure together

August 27, 2013, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland's research results indicate that joint planning of the reactor structure and remote maintenance system can significantly improve the utilisation rates of future fusion power plants. Designing a reactor with the simplest structure possible can reduce maintenance periods, as well as building expenses and overhead costs. Since 1995, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has participated in two international projects aimed at building a full-scale fusion reactor and commercialising fusion as an energy source.

ITER and DEMO (DEMOnstration Power Plant) are international programmes targeting the harnessing of energy for energy production. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland plays an important role in both programmes by developing remote handling systems for critical reactor parts.

ITER is an experimental currently being built to test various technologies and materials for use in . If ITER proves successful, the next step is DEMO - short for Demonstration Power Plant - which will be the first prototype of a commercial .

Together with the European Fusion Development Agreement, EFDA, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has studied how to apply the and equipment designed during ITER, and avoid the problems encountered during the programme, in a DEMO reactor.

The resulting concept plan provides for the planning of fusion reactor maintenance alongside other work at a sufficiently early stage. Designing remote handling and reactor structure in parallel would prevent major errors that hamper compatibility. This would mean fewer alterations during the building process and minimised downtime in the finished power plant, resulting in lower construction and overhead costs.

Several maintenance issues have been encountered during the ITER experiment.. Installation of service equipment and the required maintenance ports sizes were not considered sufficiently in the original plans, for example, limiting the opportunity for remote maintenance.

Because the objective of DEMO is to build a commercially viable reactor, the maintenance requirements are significantly stricter than for ITER. Problems discovered during ITER would mean extended downtime periods and considerable additional costs if encountered in DEMO. The basic premise of DEMO design has been to minimise maintenance periods through modular design and simple module structure.

Fusion as a source of energy

Although a challenge, harnessing fusion for is an attractive option which would solve mankind's energy problems. A fusion reactor carries no risk of a runaway reaction, and the production of fusion energy creates no radioactive waste.

ITER's objective is to build a full-scale experimental reactor to demonstrate the technical and scientific viability of and achieve high efficiency fusion. This project, initiated in the 1980s, is one of the world's most ambitious scientific endeavours. In addition to the EU, there are six other participants - Russia, Japan, China, India, South Korea and the United States.

An ITER reactor is currently under construction in Cadarache, France, due for completion in 2020. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland and the Tampere University of Technology TUT, participate by developing the maintenance of the most critical parts of the facility. In 2005, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland and Tampere University of Technology TUT established ROViR, an international research centre located in Tampere, Finland, that hosts a full-scale model of the fusion reactor base. On a global scale, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland is unique in its practical experience of the functioning of fusion reactor maintenance equipment in the ITER reactor's divertor area. A divertor is the bottom section of a reactor chamber, or "sink", where the particles leaving the chamber are gathered.

Remote handling and virtual technologies are crucial in fusion reactor maintenance because of radiation and limited space in the interior sections of a . These restrict accessibility and render remote handling the single viable maintenance option. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland's role in designing and testing is crucial, as a failure in remote handling would lead to extensive downtime.

Explore further: Previewing the next steps on the path to a magnetic fusion power plant

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1.8 / 5 (5) Aug 27, 2013
Overhead costs of fusion power plants can be reduced by replacing the ITER gargantuan project by more economically affordable and technologically feasible aneutronic fusion reactors.
1.5 / 5 (2) Aug 28, 2013
How about harnessing the energy from another source? Something far more advanced than the antique turbine turning technology? Fusion requires Cooling, Heat protection which cuts most of the thermal energy as it is, and if it is to simply boil water and turn the turbines, I think it's the similar concept as using a steam engine then call it something completely new because you are using something else to heat up the water than coal.

They can also study plasma to do the energy transfer as well as heat protection.

They could spend the time and money invested into fusion reactor into modifying solar cells to be able to collect radiation coming out of naturally decaying materials. Sure at first they will be greatly inefficient, but just about anything in the world gets improved very fast with the right investments. I mean look at computers in the 70s where hundreds of pounds storing a few hundred megabytes and now a tiny chip can hold 32GB at just around 20 dollars.

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