Kyoto under the microscope in quest for new climate deal

November 29, 2012 byMariette Le Roux
Indian villagers cross the dry river bed of the Sabarmati river near Ahmedabad in August 2012. The Kyoto Protocol bound 37 industrialised nations and the European Union (EU) to curbing Earth-warming greenhouse gas emissions by five percent on average by 2008-2012.

As the first phase of the Kyoto Protocol draws to a close, the world will dissect its record for successes to emulate in the fight against climate change—and pitfalls to avoid.

If all goes well, Kyoto will eventually be superseded by a new worldwide treaty, whose design is being negotiated at UN talks in Doha, Qatar.

Its job would be to limit global warming to a manageable two degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit) from pre-industrial levels.

But what should this much-trumpeted post-2020 pact look like?

Searching for an answer, many are scrutinising Kyoto, the most ambitious but also the most contested ever seen.

"The protocol was the best we could produce in 1997. Now things are different. The situation has changed radically," Argentine diplomat Raul Estrada, a midwife at Kyoto's birth, told AFP.

Adopted in 1997 after 30 months of tough negotiations, the protocol was then held up by further wrangling over its rulebook before finally taking effect in 2005.

It bound 37 industrialised nations and the European Union (EU) to curbing Earth-warming by five percent on average in 2008-2012 from 1990 levels. In Doha, are wrangling over a second set of that would run from 2013.

Kyoto has always excited passions.

Developing and greens like it because countries that historically are to blame for today's warming have legally-binding commitments on their emissions.

Critics, though, say it is flawed.

Graphic showing the consequences of global warming in the next decades

Their sharpest are reserved for a rich country/poor country divide that may have held true in 1997 but is badly out of date today.

Developing countries have no targeted commitments, the idea being that they should be able to use cheap to power their rise out of poverty.

This category includes bone-poor economies such as Niger and —and newly-rich ones like , , Kuwait, Singapore and Malaysia.

As a result China, which has emerged since 1997 as the world's No. 1 CO2 spewer, has no specified targets.

Nor does the United States, the No. 2 emitter today, which signed Kyoto but refuses to ratify it citing unfairness.

"In practice, the 1997 treaty did little to curb emissions of greenhouse gases," the science journal Nature commented on Wednesday.

"Most of the parties to the treaty met their commitments easily but, because the did not set limits for developing countries, the total emissions of greenhouse gases are rising faster than ever thanks mainly to massive growth in coal consumption by China."

According to the International Energy Agency, global energy-related CO2 emissions rose 3.2 percent in 2011 to reach a record high of 31.2 gigatonnes—pointing to potential warming of 3.6 C (6.5 F).

Even so, Kyoto spawned innovations that are likely to remain part of the climate landscape, say analysts.

These include carbon markets that allow countries to trade emissions allowances and the Clean Development Mechanism by which rich nations earn credits for sponsoring cleaner fuel projects in poor countries.

"The success of the Kyoto Protocol depends on your measure," said Kelly Rigg, executive director of the Global Campaign for Climate Action.

"Has it cut emissions down to levels that would stop and was it ever expected to do that? No!

"Was it instrumental in triggering investments and legislation in pioneer countries that will eventually lead the world economy towards a low-carbon transition? Yes!"

Rigg argued: "We need the Kyoto Protocol now, and its binding rules need to inspire a new treaty, as voluntary actions alone simply won't do the trick." But punishing climate violators is easier said than done.

Kyoto is larded with compliance clauses. Countries who exceeded their targets by 2012 have to make good in the follow-up period, with a 30 percent penalty on top.

But nothing prevents them from simply walking away from Kyoto without facing the bill, as Canada did in 2011 after years of exceeding its carbon cap.

"The problem is the way that international law works," lamented Estrada. "You cannot go to the Security Council of the UN asking to make an expedition" to a defaulting country."

In this light, many observers contend that there are far simpler measures, such as taxes or industry-wide incentives, that set a price on carbon and get countries to pollute less.

Explore further: Russia slams Kyoto Protocol

Related Stories

Russia slams Kyoto Protocol

December 16, 2011

Russia supports Canada's decision to pull out of the Kyoto Protocol, says its foreign ministry, reaffirming Friday that Moscow will not take on new commitments.

UN climate talks on edge heading into final hours

December 9, 2011

(AP) -- The United States, China and India could scuttle attempts to save the only treaty governing global warming, Europe's top negotiator said Friday hours before a 194-nation U.N. climate conference was to close.

EU on track for Kyoto and 2020 emissions targets

October 24, 2012

The European Union (EU) will go beyond its targets to cut greenhouse gases by 2012 under the UN's Kyoto Protocol and is on course for meeting its goal for 2020, it reported on Wednesday.

Australia to sign up for Kyoto 2 Protocol

November 9, 2012

Key greenhouse gas emitter Australia on Friday said it will sign up for a second round of the Kyoto Protocol environmental protection treaty, but New Zealand opted out.

Melting permafrost 'may speed global warming'

November 27, 2012

Climate talks got down to the nitty-gritty in Doha on Tuesday as developing countries and the European Union (EU) staked out rival positions on the fate of the Kyoto Protocol.

Recommended for you

Climate change made Harvey rainfall 15 percent more intense

December 14, 2017

A team of scientists from World Weather Attribution, including researchers from Rice University and other institutions in the United States and Europe, have found that human-caused climate change made the record rainfall ...

East Antarctic Ice Sheet has history of instability

December 13, 2017

The East Antarctic Ice Sheet locks away enough water to raise sea level an estimated 53 meters (174 feet), more than any other ice sheet on the planet. It's also thought to be among the most stable, not gaining or losing ...

Hydraulic fracturing negatively impacts infant health

December 13, 2017

From North Dakota to Ohio to Pennsylvania, hydraulic fracturing, also known as fracking, has transformed small towns into energy powerhouses. While some see the new energy boom as benefiting the local economy and decreasing ...


Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.