Earth's magnetosphere behaves like a sieve

Earth's magnetosphere behaves like a sieve
When Earth’s magnetic field and the interplanetary magnetic field are aligned, for example in a northward orientation as indicated by the white arrow in this graphic, Kelvin–Helmholtz waves are generated at low (equatorial) latitudes. Credit: AOES Medialab

ESA's quartet of satellites studying Earth's magnetosphere, Cluster, has discovered that our protective magnetic bubble lets the solar wind in under a wider range of conditions than previously believed.

Earth's magnetic field is our planet's first line of defence against the bombardment of the . This stream of plasma is launched by the Sun and travels across the Solar System, carrying its own magnetic field with it.

Depending on how the solar wind's interplanetary magnetic field – IMF – is aligned with Earth's magnetic field, different phenomena can arise in Earth's immediate environment.

One well-known process is magnetic reconnection, where pointing in opposite directions spontaneously break and reconnect with other nearby field lines. This redirects their plasma load into the magnetosphere, opening the door to the solar wind and allowing it to reach Earth.

Under certain circumstances this can drive 'space weather', generating spectacular aurorae, interrupting GPS signals and affecting terrestrial power systems.

In 2006, Cluster made the surprising discovery that huge, 40 000 km swirls of plasma along the boundary of the magnetosphere – the magnetopause – could allow the solar wind to enter, even when Earth's magnetic field and the IMF are aligned.

These swirls were found at low, equatorial latitudes, where the magnetic fields were most closely aligned.

These giant are driven by a process known as the Kelvin–Helmholtz (KH) effect, which can occur anywhere in nature when two adjacent flows slip past each other at different speeds.

Examples include waves whipped up by wind sliding across the surface of the ocean, or in atmospheric clouds.

Analysis of Cluster data has now found that KH waves can also occur at a wider range of magnetopause locations and when the IMF is arranged in a number of other configurations, providing a mechanism for the continuous transport of the solar wind into Earth's magnetosphere.

"We found that when the interplanetary magnetic field is westward or eastward, magnetopause boundary layers at higher latitude become most subject to KH instabilities, regions quite distant from previous observations of these waves," says Kyoung-Joo Hwang of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and lead author of the paper published in the Journal of Geophysical Research.

"In fact, it's very hard to imagine a situation where solar wind plasma could not leak into the magnetosphere, since it is not a perfect ."

The findings confirm theoretical predictions and are reproduced by simulations presented by the authors of the new study.

"The solar wind can enter the magnetosphere at different locations and under different conditions that we hadn't known about before," says co-author Melvyn Goldstein, also from Goddard Space Flight Center.

"That suggests there is a 'sieve-like' property of the magnetopause in allowing the solar wind to continuously flow into the magnetosphere."

The KH effect is also seen in the magnetospheres of Mercury and Saturn, and the new results suggest that it may provide a possible continuous entry mechanism of solar wind into those planetary magnetospheres, too.

"Cluster's observations of these boundary waves have provided a great advance on our understanding of solar wind – interactions, which are at the heart of research," says Matt Taylor, ESA's Cluster project scientist.

"In this case, the relatively small separation of the four Cluster satellites as they passed through the high-latitude dayside magnetopause provided a microscopic look at the processes ripping open the magnetopause and allowing particles from the Sun direct entry into the atmosphere."


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More information: Journal of Geophysical Research 117, A08233, doi:10.1029/2011JA017256
Journal information: Journal of Geophysical Research

Citation: Earth's magnetosphere behaves like a sieve (2012, October 24) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-10-earth-magnetosphere-sieve.html
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Oct 24, 2012
"In fact, it's very hard to imagine a situation where solar wind plasma could not leak into the magnetosphere, since it is not a perfect magnetic bubble."

So this little nugget couldn't possibly help confirm the EUT POV that variations in the solar wind affect the weather patterns?

http://www.thunde...aker.htm

And what else does this finding imply, many things I'm sure, but I know electric currents also will need to be considered;
http://www.thunde...ther.htm


Oct 24, 2012
It's just amazing what can be found at
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Oct 26, 2012
When interplanetary magnetic field aligns westward or eastward with occurring of KH effect, is it possible aurorae observed at lower latitude ?

I guess the effect of shielding is up to the different directions between the Earth's magnetic field lines and the charged particles in solar wind. Through induction, solar wind induces opposite charge to Earth and (the particles in outer) atmosphere which consequence solar wind and Earth are attracting each others. It depends on the orientations, velocity, energy and mass of the solar wind bubble, perhaps the thresholds are varied.

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