Brent geese show parents know best

November 17, 2010
A light-bellied Brent goose guards its eggs. Credit: Picture by Kendrew Colhoun

Research from a six year study on migrating geese has discovered an interesting outcome – they return to the same spots they were taken to as youngsters.

The findings of the study, published online today [November 17] in the journal Molecular Ecology, suggest young light-bellied Brent geese learn their migratory destinations from parents.

This means their routes are learned through culture rather than inherited genetically, raising some interesting questions about why this species of goose demonstrates this behaviour.

Xavier Harrison, from the Centre for Ecology & Conservation (Cornwall) at the University of Exeter, said: "If most offspring settle in the places they were shown in their first year of life, it means there can be a high risk of inbreeding between relatives, which isn't good for the reproductive future of that group. Because of this, it was quite unexpected to find such a high concentration of related birds.

"But there are potential advantages which could explain this pattern. These geese are social foragers, and returning to the same spots to forage with their siblings could allow them better access to food, as related birds may be less competitive over resources.

"Returning to the sites your parents raised you on also makes sense for your own reproductive success, because they have already been proven to be a good choice for producing offspring. It seems that in light-bellied Brent geese, parents know what's best."

Studying the location choices of migratory birds is very difficult due to the large distances they travel. To overcome this, the study saw collaboration between researchers at the University of Exeter, the NERC Biomolecular Analysis Facility at the University of Sheffield, the Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust, and the Icelandic Institute of Natural History.

They were able to combine resources to use genotyping and a database of long term observational data to build up a picture of the locations individuals picked for migration routes.

It showed a recurring pattern – young continuing to follow the routes they learned from their and stopping at the same places, or within a very close area in both Ireland and Iceland.

Stuart Bearhop, also from the Centre for Ecology & Conservation (Cornwall) at the University of Exeter, said: "Combining genetic data with observations of marked individuals in their natural habitat is a powerful approach, and has allowed us to gain a detailed understanding of the migratory decisions of young geese.

"The research shows a lot of family structure within light-bellied Brent geese, and suggests a pattern of site use most likely driven by cultural inheritance which is maintained over many years.

"What we're seeing is that groups of animals can be quite independent, and may not mix with others who settle at different locations. This shows how powerful cultural inheritance of migration can be in structuring reproductive isolation among groups, which in turn could have important implications for the development of genetic structure within animal populations."

Explore further: Conflict with farmers threaten geese

Related Stories

Conflict with farmers threaten geese

February 15, 2006

A Netherlands Institute of Ecology scientist in Yerseke says the survival of pink-footed geese is being endangered by a conflict with farmers.

Personality of geese determines their foraging behaviour

May 21, 2010

When searching for food, slow, shy barnacle geese follow information given by their flock mates. On the other hand, fast, bold geese ignore this type of information and go off in search for food on their own. Whether barnacle ...

Recommended for you

Snapper family ties provide new evidence on marine reserves

October 18, 2017

A higher proportion of young snapper in fishing areas north of Auckland are related to adult snapper from the Goat Island Marine Reserve, confirming what scientists have long suspected: the reserve acts as a giant snapper ...

Live fast die young: Updating signal detection theory

October 18, 2017

Signal Detection Theory is a popular and well-established idea that has influenced behavioral science for around 50 years. Essentially, the theory holds that in a predator-prey relationship, prey animals will show more wariness ...

Tiny protein coiled coils that self-assemble into cages

October 17, 2017

(—A large team of researchers with members from Slovenia, the U.K, Serbia, France and Spain has developed a technique that causes proteins to self-assemble into geometric shapes on demand. In their paper published ...


Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

not rated yet Nov 17, 2010
Animal researchers abuse the word "culture" when applying what is better described as "habit" or "tradition". Culture is more than transmitted behavior--its application to nonhuman animals has less to do with them than gaining research funding.
not rated yet Nov 17, 2010
Sort of a 'herd' instinct?

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.