Researchers develop drug delivery system using nanoparticles triggered by electromagnetic field

Jul 08, 2010

A new system for the controlled delivery of pharmaceutical drugs has been developed by a team of University of Rhode Island chemical engineers using nanoparticles embedded in a liposome that can be triggered by non-invasive electromagnetic fields.

The discovery by URI professors Geoffrey Bothun and Arijit Bose and graduate student Yanjing Chen was published in the June issue of ACS Nano.

According to Bothun, are tiny nanoscale spherical structures made of lipids that can trap different inside them for use in delivering those drugs to targeted locations in the body. The superparamagnetic nanoparticles the researchers embed in the shell of the liposome release the drug by making the shell leaky when heat-activated in an alternating current operating at radio frequencies.

"We've shown that we can control the rate and extent of the release of a model drug molecule by varying the nanoparticle loading and the magnetic field strength," explained Bothun. "We get a quick release of the drug with magnetic field heating in a matter of 30 to 40 minutes, and without heating there is minimal spontaneous leakage of the drug from the liposome."

Bothun said that the liposomes self-assemble because portions of the lipids are hydrophilic - they have a strong affinity for water - and others are hydrophobic - they avoid water. When he mixes lipids and nanoparticles in a solvent, adds water and evaporates off the solvent, the materials automatically assemble themselves into liposomes. The hydrophobic nanoparticles and lipids join together to form the shell of the liposome, while the water-loving drug molecules are captured inside the spherical shell.

"The concept of loading within the hydrophobic shell to focus the activation is brand new," Bothun said. "It works because the leakiness of the shell is ultimately what controls the release of the drugs."

The next step in the research is to design and optimize liposome/nanoparticle assemblies that can target cancer cells or other disease-causing cells. In vitro cancer cell studies are already underway in collaboration with URI pharmacy professor Matthew Stoner.

"We are functionalizing the liposomes by putting in different lipids to help stabilize and target them so they can seek out particular cancer cell types," he said. "We are building liposomes that will attach to particular cells or tumor regions."

Bothun said that research on nanomedicine shows great promise, but there are still many challenges to overcome, and the targeting of appropriate cells may be the greatest challenge.

"Any ability to target the drug is better than a drug that goes everywhere in your system and generates off-target effects," he said, noting that the hair loss and nausea from anti-cancer drugs are the result of the high drug concentrations needed for treatment and the drug's affect on non-target cells. "If you can get an assembly to a targeted site without losing its contents in the process, that's the holy grail."

Explore further: Research reveals how our bodies keep unwelcome visitors out of cell nuclei

Related Stories

Smart Nanocarriers to Combat Tumors

Apr 26, 2005

A ‘smart’ nanocarrier technology developed by a team of researchers at the Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology (IBN) is set to vastly improve the way cancer patients are treated.

Targeted therapy from within

Jul 28, 2009

A group of researchers at Johns Hopkins University has designed nanoparticles that can carry cancer-treating radioisotopes through the body and deliver them selectively to tumors. Today in Anaheim, CA, they will report the ...

New Nanoparticle Structure Boosts Magnetic Properties

Dec 19, 2005

Magnetic nanoparticles have shown promise as contrast-enhancing agents for improving cancer detection using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as miniaturized heaters capable of killing malignant cells, and as targeted drug ...

Stealth particles to target tumors

Aug 31, 2005

Stealth nano particles may some day target tumor cells and deliver medication to specific body locations, according to Penn State chemical engineers.

Remote Magnetic Field Triggers Nanoparticle Drug Release

Nov 08, 2007

Magnetic nanoparticles heated by a remote magnetic field have the potential to release multiple anticancer drugs on demand at the site of a tumor, according to a study published in the journal Advanced Materials. Moreover, say th ...

Recommended for you

Study shows graphene able to withstand a speeding bullet

3 hours ago

(Phys.org)—A team of researchers working at Rice University in the U.S. has demonstrated that graphene is better able to withstand the impact of a bullet than either steel or Kevlar. In their paper published ...

Nanomaterials to preserve ancient works of art

Nov 27, 2014

Little would we know about history if it weren't for books and works of art. But as time goes by, conserving this evidence of the past is becoming more and more of a struggle. Could this all change thanks ...

Learning anti-microbial physics from cicada

Nov 27, 2014

(Phys.org) —Inspired by the wing structure of a small fly, an NPL-led research team developed nano-patterned surfaces that resist bacterial adhesion while supporting the growth of human cells.

User comments : 0

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.