The color of dinosaur feathers identified

Jan 27, 2010
Reconstruction of a single Sinosauropteryx, sporting its orange and white striped tail. Original artwork copyright © Jim Robbins

(PhysOrg.com) -- The colour of some feathers on dinosaurs and early birds has been identified for the first time, reports a paper published in Nature this week.

The research found that the theropod dinosaur Sinosauropteryx had simple bristles - precursors of feathers - in alternate orange and white rings down its tail, and that the early bird Confuciusornis had patches of white, black and orange-brown colouring. Future work will allow precise mapping of colours and patterns across the whole bird.

Mike Benton, Professor of at the University of Bristol, said, "Our research provides extraordinary insights into the origin of feathers. In particular, it helps to resolve a long-standing debate about the original function of feathers - whether they were used for flight, insulation, or display. We now know that feathers came before wings, so feathers did not originate as flight structures.

"We therefore suggest that feathers first arose as agents for colour display and only later in their evolutionary history did they become useful for flight and insulation."

The team of palaeontologists from the University of Bristol, UK, the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology (IVPP) in Beijing, University College Dublin and the Open University report two kinds of melanosomes found in the feathers of numerous birds and from the world-famous Jehol beds of NE China.

The fossil of a small flesh-eating Chinese theropod dinosaur Sinosauropteryx, a complete specimen in the Nanjing Institute. Short, bristle-like feathers run along the midline of the head, neck, and back, and all round the tail, forming irregular stripes. Samples were taken from a ‘dark’ stripe near the base of the tail (marked with arrow). Only phaeomelanosomes were found in these feathers, indicating that the dark stripes were orange-brown in life. The pale stripes contain no melanosomes, so were probably white. Credits: Photo of Sinosauropteryx fossil copyright © the Nanjing Institute. Photo of phaeomelanosomes image copyright © University of Bristol.

Melanosomes are colour-bearing organelles buried within the structure of feathers and hair in modern birds and mammals, giving black, grey, and rufous tones such as orange and brown. Because melanosomes are an integral part of the tough of the feather, they survive when a feather survives, even for hundreds of millions of years.

This is the first report of melanosomes found in the feathers of dinosaurs and early birds. It is also the first report of phaeomelanosomes in fossil feathers, the organelles that provide rufous and brown colours.

These discoveries confirm the substantial body of evidence that suggests birds evolved through a long line of theropod (flesh-eating) dinosaurs. It also demonstrates that the unique assemblage of characters that make a modern bird - feathers, wings, lightweight skeleton, enhanced metabolic system, enlarged brain and visual systems - evolved step-by-step over some 50 million years of dinosaur evolution, through the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods.

"These discoveries open up a whole new area of research", said Benton, "allowing us to explore aspects of the life and behaviour of dinosaurs and early birds that lived over 100 million years ago.

"Furthermore, we now know that the simplest feathers in dinosaurs such as Sinosauropteryx were only present over limited parts of its body - for example, as a crest down the midline of the back and round the tail - and so they would have had only a limited function in thermoregulation.

" are key to the success of birds and we can now dissect their in detail and see how each feather type - and the fine detail of feather structure - was acquired through time. This will link with current work on how the genome controls feather development."

Explore further: Narwhal tusk length linked to testes mass suggesting its purpose is for attracting females

More information: Fucheng Zhang, Stuart L. Kearns, Patrick J. Orr, Michael J. Benton, Zhonghe Zhou, Diane Johnson, Xing Xu, and Xiaolin Wang.
Fossilized melanosomes and the colour of Cretaceous dinosaurs and birds. Nature advanced online publication, 27 January 2010.

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Mercury_01
4.5 / 5 (2) Jan 27, 2010
Whats amazing is that our artist representations have imagined these patterns. Dinosaur books and artwork used to show them in solid drab colors till the artists got creative, and so long ago, in a world even before flowers, its surprising to confirm that dinosaurs were in fact colorful, and apparently sophisticated creatures, using visual signals. I wonder what colors the large dinosaurs were.
LuckyBrandon
not rated yet Jan 27, 2010
I seem to remember many years ago (around 7-10 maybe) the find of an ancient bird with clearly visible red feathering on it (you could see it in the stone/fossil itself still).
So technically, isnt the statement that the first colors have been identified completely wrong? I would think a better title would have been something along the lines of "have figured out how to consistently find the coloring"
baudrunner
not rated yet Jan 27, 2010
Very interesting that such early life had regressive pigmentation genes. Redheads today are the rarest of the non-aberrant human genotypes. The process of regressive evolution is a mystery, but let it not go unsaid that those ancient beasties are now extinct - or evolved.