Comparison of bonobo anatomy to humans offers evolutionary clues

June 2, 2015 by Bob Yirka report
Percentage of muscle distribution to upper and lower limbs in Pongo pygmaeus, Gorilla gorilla, P. paniscus, and H. sapiens. Credit: (c) Adrienne L. Zihlman,PNAS, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1505071112

(Phys.org)—A pair of anthropology researchers, one with the University of California, the other Modesto College has found what they believe are clues to human evolutionary development by conducting a long term study of bonobo anatomy. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Adrienne Zihlman and Debra Bolter, describe their anatomy studies and their ideas on why what they found offers new clues on why humans developed in the ways we did.

Scientists looking to understand how humans evolved have studied a lot of fossils, but such samples are of bones, which means there is little to no evidence of what organs, muscle or fat looked like in our ancestors which means there are still questions regarding things such as what percentage or proportion of fat or muscle was there, where were they located on the body, and what the organs were like. In this new study, the research pair sought to uncover clues by studying bonobos, apes that look a lot like chimpanzees and are considered to be our closest relative.

To learn more about bonobo , the researchers performed autopsies on thirteen of the apes that had died naturally over the course of three decades, carefully jotting down seldom noted information such as fat and muscle percentages. In so doing, they came to see that bonobos have considerably less fat on their bodies than do humans, even those that lived a similar sedentary life due to living in captivity. They also found that the apes had more upper body mass than humans as a rule and less leg muscle—bonobos also have a lot more skin.

In analyzing their results, the researchers suggest that the differences likely came about as began walking around upright, causing the need for more leg muscle and more fat—because a nomadic lifestyle would necessitate a store to prevent starvation during lean times, especially for females if they were to successfully bear offspring. They also believe that we humans have less skin because as we moved around and moved faster on two legs—our skin developed an ability to sweat as a means to keep cool and that led to thinner skin.

Explore further: Scientists complete Bonobo genome

More information: Body composition in Pan paniscus compared with Homo sapiens has implications for changes during human evolution, Adrienne L. Zihlman,PNAS, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1505071112

Abstract
The human body has been shaped by natural selection during the past 4–5 million years. Fossils preserve bones and teeth but lack muscle, skin, fat, and organs. To understand the evolution of the human form, information about both soft and hard tissues of our ancestors is needed. Our closest living relatives of the genus Pan provide the best comparative model to those ancestors. Here, we present data on the body composition of 13 bonobos (Pan paniscus) measured during anatomical dissections and compare the data with Homo sapiens. These comparative data suggest that both females and males (i) increased body fat, (ii) decreased relative muscle mass, (iii) redistributed muscle mass to lower limbs, and (iv) decreased relative mass of skin during human evolution. Comparison of soft tissues between Pan and Homo provides new insights into the function and evolution of body composition.

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JVK
2.3 / 5 (9) Jun 02, 2015
Re: "Comparison of soft tissues between Pan and Homo provides new insights into the function and evolution of body composition."

The comparisons show nothing because insights into the evolution of morphological phenotypes must include information about how behavioral phenotypes "evolve."

Telling anyone that ridiculous comparisons of morphology provide new insights while ignoring Dobzhansky's insights is merely a continuation of touting pseudoscientific nonsense, when in 1973 Dobzhansky wrote:

"...the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla" (p. 127).

This link opens the pdf of Dobzhansky (1973)
http://img.signal...nsky.pdf
Vietvet
3 / 5 (8) Jun 03, 2015
You tell em kohl!

Tell 99.999999% of all biologists they're wrong and that only you hold the truth.
Dug
2.2 / 5 (5) Jun 03, 2015
More junk science. Upper and lower muscle masses are also directly related to the length of the respective limbs. Just longer legs for efficient bipedal locomotion means greater lower muscle mass. Range of motion (much higher in apes) also necessitates increases skin volumes and durability with greater thickness. Modern humans migrated to much cooler climates from Africa - higher body fat is an insulating environmental adaptation - as in marine mammals. Sweating is a common ability across the animal kingdom, the degrees of sweating being limited by climate variability.. Horses sweat a lot, dogs not so much since they primarily cool through panting. The degree of sweating might turn out to be more limited by fur thickness and climate variation than just a need for cooling. Animals that adapt to changing hot/cold climates are at risk if they sweat into thick fur because it reduces the efficiency of insulation. Too complex for broad generalities.
JVK
2.5 / 5 (8) Jun 03, 2015
Too complex for broad generalities.


Caveat: Unless you are a biologically uninformed theorist. Then, others who are equally uniformed will make meaningless comments like this:

Tell 99.999999% of all biologists they're wrong and that only you hold the truth.


The truth about the biological complexity that links the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genomes of all genera has once again been placed into the context of simultaneous emergence.

People like VietVet will interpret the truth in the context of mutations and evolution instead of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation.

But see: Living the life that randomness created? (Sarcasm alert)
http://rna-mediat...m-alert/
Captain Stumpy
3.3 / 5 (7) Jun 03, 2015
People like VietVet will interpret the truth in the context of mutations and evolution instead of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation
@jk
lets see...
Vietvet (hereafter VV) is holding the SAME belief in the science just like 99.999999999999999% of all scientists
AND
VV actually thinks that proven science is far more legit than your pseudoscience
AND
VV also stands in the same "context of mutations and evolution" as Dr. Extavour, Sr. Whittaker and Lenski, not to mention 99.999999999999% of all biologists

Whereas
YOU have demonstrated a 100% FAILURE rate interpreting science - especially biology and evolution
AND
you failed to make a single point due to your fundamental religious beliefs and promotion of pseudoscience over proven science
see: http://phys.org/n...ols.html for further evidence of this
AND
you have been debunked every time you try to post your diatribe/religion here on PO

jvk is a PSEUDOSCIENTISTS
JVK
2.5 / 5 (8) Jun 03, 2015
holding the SAME belief in the science just like 99.999999999999999% of all scientists


Only a few biologically informed serious scientists believe in the pseudoscientific nonsense of neo-Darwinism. No matter how many times you make the same ridiculous claim, you cannot support it. There is only one model of cell type differentiation in all genera. It's mine!

RNA-mediated gene activation http://www.ncbi.n...3928182/

Excerpt: "The regulation of gene expression by non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) has become a new paradigm in biology."

In the early 90's I was told that my model must start with gene activation. That was before most of what is known about epigenetically-effected cell type differentiation was integrated with what is known about physics and chemistry by other serious scientists. Now that disparate data has been integrated, the biologically uninformed have not excuse to remain that way.
JVK
2.5 / 5 (8) Jun 03, 2015
See also: http://medicalxpr...pic.html

Excerpt: .. in systems from engineering to ecosystems, maintaining parameters within a certain range is very critical... most systems must have some buffering mechanisms to control variance as an optimal mean.

Parameters are maintained within a nutrient-dependent range by thermodynamic cycles of RNA-mediated protein biosynthesis and degradation that link metabolic networks and genetic networks to all extant biodiversity via the physiology of reproduction.

Serious scientists know that. Only the biologically uninformed claim that 99.999999999999999% of all scientists believe in ridiculous theories that somehow link mutations to the evolution of biodiversity.

Serious scientists do not believe that evolution "just happens." Only a few science journalists believe that.
http://www.scient...plexity/
Vietvet
2.1 / 5 (7) Jun 03, 2015




The truth about the biological complexity that links the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genomes of all genera has once again been placed into the context of simultaneous emergence.

@JVK

There you go again, trying and failing in your delusional attempts to make creationism "sciencie".
JVK
2.5 / 5 (8) Jun 03, 2015
RNA-mediated gene activation http://www.ncbi.n...3928182/

It's not "sciencie."

It's the difference between science and pseudoscientific nonsense. If it were not, you would not try to keep people from looking at the results of a google search like this:

https://www.googl...mediated
Vietvet
2.3 / 5 (6) Jun 03, 2015
I'm not trying to keep anyone from https://www.googl...mediated

I'm just pointing out a superior source:https://scholar.g...as_sdtp=
Osiris1
not rated yet Jun 06, 2015
Probably found out that bonobo males had bigger longer stronger 'junk'
JVK
2.5 / 5 (8) Jun 06, 2015
I'm just pointing out a superior source:


For comparison, what have you learned about the biophysically constrained nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated chemistry of protein folding that links fixation of amino acid substitutions via the physiology of reproduction to cell type differentiation in all cells of all individuals of all genera?

I think you are pointing to an integrated mess of fact that cannot be comprehended outside the context of a model. For instance, see: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model. http://www.ncbi.n...24693353

See also: http://rna-mediat...lopment/
Vietvet
2.3 / 5 (6) Jun 06, 2015


I think you are pointing to an integrated mess of fact that cannot be comprehended outside the context of a model. For instance, see: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model. http://www.ncbi.n...24693353


JVK's model dismantled:
http://www.socioa...ew/24367
viko_mx
3 / 5 (6) Jun 06, 2015
"Tell 99.999999% of all biologists they're wrong and that only you hold the truth."

The truth is not determined by majority vote. From history we know that always a minority have moved humanity forward in its developed and were defenders scientific truth. Moreover the premise for your conclusion is wrong. 99,99999 %? How did you estimate this percentage? With wishful thinking? If all think alike then no one really think.
Captain Stumpy
2.8 / 5 (6) Jun 06, 2015
Only the biologically uninformed claim that 99.999999999999999% of all scientists believe in ridiculous theories that somehow link mutations to the evolution of biodiversity.
@jk
but your own model actually SUPPORTS this claim, per your own words, mensa boy!
remember when i asked
DOES your model make any changes to the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal genetic element?
This is a yes or no answer
(this is the DEFINITION of mutation) to which you answered
YES!
--Thanks for asking
then, by definition, your model uses MUTATIONS

The truth is not determined by majority vote
@viko
no one said it did
the scientists follow the EVIDENCE... not the majority vote
THAT is why it is accepted as truth
Captain Stumpy
2.6 / 5 (5) Jun 06, 2015
I'm not trying to keep anyone from https://www.googl...mediated
I'm just pointing out a superior source: https://scholar.g...as_sdtp=
and THIS is the reason that evidence will always trump pseudoscience

See also: http://rna-mediat...lopment/
@jk
REPORTED
as PSEUDOSCIENCE and as SPAM and SELF PROMOTION

this is a PSEUDOSCIENCE site and promotes CREATIONIST dogma over actual scientific experimentation

as long as you continue to link it i will report it

also: your model is DEBUNKED

http://www.socioa...ew/24367

epic fail mensa boy
viko_mx
3 / 5 (6) Jun 06, 2015
The probability something to evolve with time thanks to random events is zero. The probability something to degrade with time thank to random events is 1 or 100% garanteed. Some proponent of theory of evolution can you give the example for increase of order in the one physical system thanks to random events? When we talk for the main column of the evolutionary myth (archeology and phosils) we can find many scientific problems and unclear and ilogical assumptions. For example the findings of the so called living index fossils question the reliability of this method. These are the fossils of plants, water stars, snails and brachiopods, which are calculated by evolutionists 530 million years ago. However, they all look exactly the same today with known species. No trace of evolution in these millions of years! Exposed fossils are completed species. It is logical to assume that the millions of fossils at least some should have features of transitional forms
viko_mx
3 / 5 (6) Jun 06, 2015
All found fossils can be formed only if those animal or plant species are buried very quickly with earth mass. Otherwise they decay rapidly and has no chance to remain intact.
Vietvet
2.3 / 5 (6) Jun 06, 2015
@viko-mix

You want transitional fossils?

How is this for a start?

http://en.wikiped..._fossils
Vietvet
2.3 / 5 (6) Jun 06, 2015
All found fossils can be formed only if those animal or plant species are buried very quickly with earth mass. Otherwise they decay rapidly and has no chance to remain intact.


It doesn't take much "mass" to begin the fossilization process.

http://en.wikiped...i/Fossil
viko_mx
3 / 5 (6) Jun 06, 2015
How do we understand that it is a fossil of transitional species? With so many found fossils of various animals species only this will you offer? How do we understand that it is fossil of transitional species? With so many found fossils of various animals species only this will you offer? Without explaining the method by which is determined as a transitional form?
I suppose you know that wikipedia is not a scientific source of information.
How the Earth layers are formed when the process of erosion prevails and washes very quicly the earth layers compared with supposedly many millions years geological periods?
Vietvet
2.3 / 5 (6) Jun 06, 2015

I suppose you know that wikipedia is not a scientific source of information.

http://en.wikiped..._fossils

A 100 plus peer viewed references support the wiki article.
viko_mx
2.7 / 5 (7) Jun 06, 2015
Comparison of bonobo anatomy to humans tell as for common Designer. The purpose and physical environment define physical structure and functions.
Vietvet
2.5 / 5 (6) Jun 06, 2015
@viko_mix

Like the old saying goes, "you can lead a horse to water but you can't make him drink."

In the same manner you can lead a creationist troll, such as yourself, to empirical, peer reviewed evidence and they will deny it based on a fundamentalist religious bias.
viko_mx
3 / 5 (6) Jun 06, 2015
What you expect? Blind faith? Because someone specialist or profesor said that? I want scinetific facts. The conclusions are my initiative.
The evolutionist are stubbornly reluctant to give scientific explanations of how evolution works and the fundamental reason for thier believe. Because they have no scientific knowidge at first. They only give links with hypothesis that others made to flee inconvenience situation to explain the basis of their faith and does not become obvious to many thinking people its absurdity. And another unknown person to bear this responsibility and shame.
JVK
2.7 / 5 (7) Jun 06, 2015
http://phys.org/n...ars.html

The speed of light on contact with water is virtually slowed to a halt by the time it reaches the bottom of the ocean. The fossil record accurately shows no light-induced changes in the amino acids that might otherwise have linked ecological variation to ecological adaptation in this species. The ridiculous idea about ~2 billion years of no evolution comes from theorists.

For comparison, the anti-entropic epigenetic effect of nutrient-dependent microRNAs is probably not required to prevent viruses and viral microRNAs from leading to genomic entropy in bacterial cells at the bottom of the ocean.

Viral microRNAs appear to be linked to entropic elasticity and DNA damage only after the de novo creation of amino acids enabled the creation of the first cell. The "Devil" may be in the details of why some cells adapted but others had no need to adapt via RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions.
Vietvet
2.3 / 5 (6) Jun 06, 2015
https://scholar.g...as_sdtp=

ScholarAbout 4,580,000 results (0.04 sec

@viko_mix

No faith in the above studies, just evidence
viko_mx
3 / 5 (6) Jun 06, 2015
Again declaration but no explanation. Traditioninal iresponsibility of the proponents of pseudo scientific theories. But indeed the base of faith of evolutionary religion is desire to not take responsibility. Is there any wonder that its proponents are unwilling to take responsibility in everyday life situations.
Vietvet
2.3 / 5 (6) Jun 06, 2015
Again declaration but no explanation. Traditioninal iresponsibility of the proponents of pseudo scientific theories. But indeed the base of faith of evolutionary religion is desire to not take responsibility. Is there any wonder that its proponents are unwilling to take responsibility in everyday life situations.


Another example of Christians unwilling to take responsibility leading to ongoing abuse of children.

http://www.latime...l#page=1
Vietvet
3 / 5 (4) Jun 06, 2015
Again declaration but no explanation. Traditioninal iresponsibility of the proponents of pseudo scientific theories. But indeed the base of faith of evolutionary religion is desire to not take responsibility. Is there any wonder that its proponents are unwilling to take responsibility in everyday life situations.


@viko

I see you've got three new bots

Joined June 6 2015
dehoji 5:45 pm
logub 5:48 pm
nuvepatif 5:49 pm

https://sciencex....t/?v=act
Vietvet
3 / 5 (4) Jun 06, 2015
Again declaration but no explanation. Traditioninal iresponsibility of the proponents of pseudo scientific theories. But indeed the base of faith of evolutionary religion is desire to not take responsibility. Is there any wonder that its proponents are unwilling to take responsibility in everyday life situations.


@viko

I see you've got three new bots

Joined June 6 2015
dehoji 5:45 pm
logub 5:48 pm
nuvepatif 5:49 pm

https://sciencex....t/?v=act


PS

karalohula 5:50
wezutipeta 5:52
JVK
1.8 / 5 (5) Jun 06, 2015
De novo design of a transmembrane Zn2+-transporting four-helix bundle
http://www.scienc...abstract

My comment: Are they claiming it designed itself?

New inorganic aromatic ion
http://phys.org/n...ion.html

Excerpt: "Sometimes when a molecule that looks perfectly reasonable does not exist, the reason may be as simple as nobody has yet found a way to make it."

What I cannot create, I do not understand
http://www.scienc...55.short

I cannot understand how anything designs itself in the context of what is currently known to serious scientists about physics, chemistry, or the conserved molecular mechanisms of cell type differentiation in all genera.
JVK
1 / 5 (2) Jul 17, 2015
http://www.huffin...216.html

Riding the Evolution Paradigm Shift With Eugene Koonin

Excerpt: "[T]he entire ideology of personalized medicine should be taken with many grains of salt."

My comment: Personalized medicine links RNA-mediated gene duplication and RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to virus-driven pathology or to nutrient-dependent health and longevity via the biophysically constrained chemistry of protein folding in all genera. Nutrient-dependent fixation of the RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions occurs in the context of the physiology of reproduction.

Excerpt: "The entire evolution of the microbial world and the virus world, and the interaction between microbes and viruses and other life forms have been left out of the Modern Synthesis..."

Neo-Darwinian theory is taught as if it was based on scientific facts to those who may never learn the difference.
Vietvet
1 / 5 (1) Jul 17, 2015
JVK has spammed three threads with the same comments in a manner of minutes. He can cut and paste all his young earth creationist rants, I can remind readers he is a young earth creationist.
Noumenon
2.3 / 5 (3) Jul 21, 2015
JVK has spammed three threads with the same comments in a manner of minutes. He can cut and paste all his young earth creationist rants, I can remind readers he is a young earth creationist.


And yet you and Stumpy hang on his every word and effectively multiply his posts by granting opportunity for him to 'respond" to.

One would think that after a while you would stop reading commenters whos posts you routinely value with a 1-rating. Who are the real trolls here?

JVK
1 / 5 (2) Jul 21, 2015
The trolls are those who never respond to evidence of biologically-based cause and effect because all of it links the anti-entropic epigenetic effects of nutrient-dependent microRNAs to the control of viral microRNAs that perturb protein folding, which leads to pathology.

http://www.the-sc...rs-Tell/

See also:
Picornaviruses moving between primates (or not)
http://rna-mediat...-or-not/

In his sci-fi novel "Blood Music," Greg Bear linked everything currently known about virus-driven RNA-mediated cell type differentiation via learning and memory and RNA-mediated gene duplication and RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions. That was more than 30 years ago.

Koonin's admission of ignorance about the role of viruses can be linked to all the pseudoscientific nonsense touted by population geneticists during the past 30 years.
JVK
1 / 5 (2) Jul 22, 2015

Yeast cells optimize their genomes in response to the environment
http://www.scienc...2922.htm

Their organized genomes are nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled via their physiology of reproduction -- just like our organized genomes and the organized genomes of every other species from bacteria to primates.

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