Ketchup turns somersaults: Scientists develop a numerical model of complex fluids

Mar 07, 2013
This shows Markus Harasim at the microscopic camera set-up monitoring the behavior of polymer molecules in a microscopic flow channel. Credit: Andreas Battenberg / TU Muenchen

Blood, paint or ketchup are complex liquids composed of several different components. For the construction of pumps, or the improvement of technical processes scientists and engineers need description models. They make the special properties of such liquids predictable. Researchers at the Technische Universitaet Muenchen and the Federal Institute of Technology Zurich have developed such a model. They present it in the current issue of the journal Physical Review Letters.

The unusual behavior of complex fluids is part of our daily life: cake dough climbs up the stirring bar, ketchup becomes liquid when you shake it. Also technology uses such phenomena: if we add a small amount of long-chained polymer molecules, a pipeline can transport more oil. The polymers reduce the flow resistance. But up to now the origin of these effects was unclear. The engineers had to rely on estimates and lengthy trials.

A team of physicists led by Professor Andreas Bausch, Chair of at TUM now developed a of such liquids. Experimental heart of the work are a fine flow channel and a micro-camera. Like the camera looking down at the pit lane of Formula 1 races, the scientists monitored the movements of individual in the flow.

From their observations they conducted a theoretical model for the motion of rigid molecules different from the current. In addition, they were able also to provide for colleagues suspected of experimental confirmation.

This video is not supported by your browser at this time.
The tumbling movements of the polymers contribute to the unusual behavior of complex fluids like ketchup, blood or paint. Credit: Video: Markus Harasim / TU Muenchen

Challenging for theory and experiment

"Due to the incredibly large number of the study and description of the motion of polymers is a big challenge," says Markus Harasim, one of the two main authors. Even a simple system of water and polymer shows the effects of complex fluids. In order to make the long molecules visible, the physicists marked the polymers with a fluorescent dye. This allowed them to study the movements under various conditions.

To their surprise the mathematical modeling showed, that even the simple model of a stiff rod was suitable as a starting point. Then the researchers refined the model by taking into account the thermal motion, the flexibility of the molecule and the higher flow resistance of a curved polymer. "Since we now know the microscopic mechanisms, we can extend the model to more complex geometries and flows. And thanks to our experimental set-up we should be able to verify our theories," says co-author Bernhard Wunderlich, who is a well known rapper in the hip-hop band "Blumentopf" in his off time.

Explore further: Laser-guided sea monkeys show how zooplankton migrations may affect global ocean currents

More information: Direct Observation of the Dynamics of Semiflexible Polymers in Shear Flow, Markus Harasim, Bernhard Wunderlich, Orit Peleg, Martin Kröger, and Andreas Bausch, Physical Review Letters, online, 4. März 2013 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.108302

add to favorites email to friend print save as pdf

Related Stories

Making complex fluids look simple

Jun 01, 2011

An international research team has successfully developed a widely applicable method for discovering the physical foundations of complex fluids for the first time. Researchers at the University of Vienna and ...

Muscle filaments make mechanical strain visible

Dec 20, 2010

Plastics-based materials have been in use for decades. But manufacturers are facing a serious hurdle in their quest for new developments: Substantial influences of the microscopic material structure on mechanical ...

Molecules delivering drugs as they walk

Aug 03, 2010

An octopus-like polymer can "walk" along the wall of a narrow channel as it is pushed through by a solvent. Now research in The Journal of Chemical Physics, which is published by the American Institute of Physics, provid ...

Moving polymers through pores

Jul 14, 2010

The movement of long chain polymers through nanopores is a key part of many biological processes, including the transport of RNA, DNA, and proteins. New research reported in The Journal of Chemical Physics, which ...

Recommended for you

Hide and seek: Sterile neutrinos remain elusive

9 hours ago

The Daya Bay Collaboration, an international group of scientists studying the subtle transformations of subatomic particles called neutrinos, is publishing its first results on the search for a so-called ...

Novel approach to magnetic measurements atom-by-atom

13 hours ago

Having the possibility to measure magnetic properties of materials at atomic precision is one of the important goals of today's experimental physics. Such measurement technique would give engineers and physicists an ultimate ...

Scientists demonstrate Stokes drift principle

16 hours ago

In nature, waves – such as those in the ocean – begin as local oscillations in the water that spread out, ripple fashion, from their point of origin. But fans of Star Trek will recall a different sort of wave pattern: ...

User comments : 0