Breakthrough study models dying stars in a lab

Feb 14, 2013

A team of scientists has successfully reproduced conditions in one of the most hostile environments in the galaxy, enabling them to find out more about how atoms behave in these extreme settings.

The study modelled conditions near to the surface of a – a comprising the dead embers which are left behind after Sun-like stars have exhausted their fuel. The environment is characterised by very high , very high temperatures, and occasionally very high magnetic fields.

These fields are astonishingly powerful, and thought to reach levels a billion times stronger than the Earth's. Matt Pang, who made the which underpin the new study work, has described them as so strong that "if a fridge magnet with this strength was sitting in the Science Museum in central London, everyone with a pacemaker would have to move outside the M25."

More unpleasantly, chemistry around the surface of a white dwarf completely changes, and atoms that did not previously stick together can become bonded, while previously bonded molecules change their size and shape. Extreme environments like this are common in space, but often difficult, or impossible, to reproduce on Earth.

As a result, the new study marks a significant breakthrough in using readily-available materials to model . The team, led by the University of Surrey, discovered that ordinary of the same type used to make computer chips are so sensitive to the effects of a much weaker in a laboratory that they could achieve the same conditions as the strongest magnetic .

The researchers doped phosphorous into silicon, which can be scaled with relative ease to compare its atomic properties with those of hydrogen. They then compared the spectrum of phosphorous patterns under laboratory magnetic fields with those obtained for hydrogen on white dwarf stars.

The results showed that in these conditions, the electron cloud around a hydrogen atom was changed to a variety of patterns, ranging from fans, to shapes resembling highly-elongated, and slightly lumpy, pencils.

Professor Paul Murdin, from the Institute of Astronomy in Cambridge, one of the co-authors of the work, said: "The theory predicting the behaviour of hydrogen atoms in magnetic fields this high has been around for just under a century, but until now, no-one was able to test it right up at the limit seen on white dwarfs. We are looking forward to using the principle to see what happens to molecules, where the theory is almost impossibly hard."

The team is now looking for this same effect on other more complicated atoms and molecules in white dwarfs .

Ellis Bowyer, a doctoral researcher from Surrey who did the experiments, said: "It's not just about astronomy – there are also practical implications. Learning how to control the shapes of tiny electron clouds in silicon chips is letting us design new kinds of computer chips, called quantum computers, where the transistors contain just one atom."

Explore further: Telescopes hint at neutrino beacon at the heart of the Milky Way

More information: Nature Communications: dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms2466

Related Stories

Binary white dwarf stars

May 04, 2011

(PhysOrg.com) -- When a star like our sun gets to be very old, after another seven billion years or so, it will no longer be able to sustain burning its nuclear fuel.

Feuding helium dwarfs exposed by eclipse

May 24, 2011

Researchers at the University of Warwick have found a unique feuding double white dwarf star system where each star appears to have been stripped down to just its helium.

Recommended for you

A colorful gathering of middle-aged stars

Nov 26, 2014

NGC 3532 is a bright open cluster located some 1300 light-years away in the constellation of Carina(The Keel of the ship Argo). It is informally known as the Wishing Well Cluster, as it resembles scattered ...

User comments : 2

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

antialias_physorg
1 / 5 (1) Feb 14, 2013
"if a fridge magnet with this strength was sitting in the Science Museum in central London, everyone with a pacemaker would have to move outside the M25."

OK. That has got to go into the official list of units of measurement for laymen. Right alongside the "time piranhas take to skeletonize a cow" and "width of a hair".
frajo
not rated yet Feb 15, 2013
I think pacemaker owners better move into the M25.
It's 2000 Ly away from central London.

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.