In shipwrecks, men more likely to survive: study

Jul 30, 2012 by Kerry Sheridan
Waves break over the Italian oil tanker, submerged by waves, that ran aground near Syracuse, in southern Sicily on in March 2012. The notion that women and children are rescued first during a shipwreck is a myth, scientists said after analyzing 18 maritime disasters that show men generally save themselves.

The notion that women and children are rescued first during a shipwreck is a myth, scientists said Monday after analyzing 18 maritime disasters that show men generally save themselves.

The sinking of the Titanic -- in which 70 percent of the and children on board were saved compared to 20 percent of the men -- is a rare exception to the rule, said the study by Swedish researchers in the .

Instead, captain and crew tend to look out for their own safety first, men on board typically have twice the survival rate of women, and children fare the worst.

The data on maritime disasters from 1852 to 2011 included 15,000 passengers and crew members of more than 30 different nationalities.

The analysis did not include the Italian , Costa Concordia, whose captain came under fire earlier this year for leaving the deadly scene of before all 4,200-plus passengers were evacuated. Thirty-two people died.

But the study showed that his behavior may not have been all that unusual.

Historical data shows that crew members "have a higher survival rate than passengers and that only nine of 16 captains went down with their ships," said the study.

Artist impression showing the 1912 shipwreck of the British luxury passenger liner Titanic off the Nova-Scotia coasts, during its maiden voyage. The notion that women and children are rescued first during a shipwreck is a myth, scientists said after analyzing 18 maritime disasters that show men generally save themselves.

In disasters when the captain took the lead in alerting passengers and crew to prioritize the needs of women and children, they tended to fare better.

Otherwise, "self-regarding players comply with norms only if the cost of the of violation exceeds the cost of compliance," said the study.

In the case of the Titanic, the captain ordered women and children to be saved first and there were reports of officers shooting at any men who disobeyed the order.

Women had a over men in just two of the shipwrecks studied, the Titanic in 1912 and the Birkenhead, a British ship that went aground in the Indian Ocean in 1852.

Markedly fewer women than men survived in 11 disasters, and there was no clear evidence of a difference in the remaining five studied.

When researchers focused on British shipwrecks in particular, they found that women consistently fared worse than men, even though the order to save women and children first was given more often on British ships.

"This contrasts with the notion of British men being more gallant than of other nationalities," said the study authored by Mikael Elindera and Oscar Erixson of the Department of Economics, Uppsala University, Sweden.

They also noted that similar conclusions have been reached in other studies of human behavior during natural disasters.

"What happened on the Titanic seems to have spurred misconceptions about human behavior in disasters," the researchers concluded.

Explore further: Gypsies and travellers on the English Green Belt

More information: “Gender, social norms and survival in maritime disasters,” by Mikael Elinder and Oscar Erixson, PNAS, 2012.

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Jeddy_Mctedder
2.5 / 5 (4) Jul 30, 2012
this research was obviously thought up by an ultra-feminist. hahahah.
kochevnik
1.3 / 5 (6) Jul 30, 2012
The objective of the Titanic was to kill all wealthy oligarch opposition to formation of the Federal Reserve bankster crime syndicate. To that end there were insufficient lifeboats, flares the wrong color (white) and strict enforcement that men should die, and navigation through risky waters.

Federal Reserve was established one year later in 1913 without opposition.
Telekinetic
1 / 5 (2) Jul 30, 2012
http://www.doomed...sia.html

It works the same on both sides of the curtain.
Readero
2 / 5 (1) Jul 30, 2012
> ...crew members have a higher survival rate than passengers...
Not surprising. They are more likely to have suitable clothes, be able to swim, know where all the boats are... They know more about both sea and boat.
> "What happened on the Titanic seems to have spurred misconceptions about human behavior in disasters," the researchers concluded.
Then the Titanic was a rare example of gentlemanly behaviour. Enforced by the captain and the crew... I suppose that such orderliness is more likely to happen when the ship sinks slowly, and there is plenty of time to find a way to save yourself - then the fight for survival is less likely. Though not having enough boats for all people does not help - if passengers catch wind of that, panic will ensue.
HealingMindN
2 / 5 (3) Jul 30, 2012
The objective of the Titanic was to kill all wealthy oligarch opposition to formation of the Federal Reserve bankster crime syndicate. To that end there were insufficient lifeboats, flares the wrong color (white) and strict enforcement that men should die, and navigation through risky waters.

Federal Reserve was established one year later in 1913 without opposition.


This is the first time I've heard such a story. What are your references? The Rothschilds and their henchmen can sentenced for mass murder with concrete evidence.
HealingMindN
1.3 / 5 (4) Jul 30, 2012
IMHO, if the men want to survive, they should save the women.
Telekinetic
1 / 5 (2) Jul 30, 2012
The Titanic conspiracy, if there was one, couldn't be proved by the lack of enough lifeboats. After all, it was the hubris of an "unsinkable" ship that did them in. Why would they even need enough lifeboats for everyone?
mrlewish
2 / 5 (4) Jul 31, 2012
Why do the looney toons show up on all the message boards?
I tell you it's a conspiracy.
kochevnik
1.5 / 5 (8) Jul 31, 2012
This is the first time I've heard such a story. What are your references? The Rothschilds and their henchmen can sentenced for mass murder with concrete evidence.
LOL. For that to happen one would have to assume that people are not complete fucking stupid. I realized sadly that most of the US economy is built upon denial and bullshit. Check back in a million years.

Why do the looney toons show up on all the message boards?
Please stick your COINTELPRO bs where the sun doesn't shine.
kochevnik
1 / 5 (2) Jul 31, 2012
Correction of my earlier post the "white distress flares were jettisoned. Passing ships thought those aboard the Titanic were having a party. The distress flares should have been red."
MarkyMark
not rated yet Jul 31, 2012
I suspect Kochevnik is a Reptillian using counter myth to hide the truth behind the sinking. Afterall with so many dieing in that disaster how come so many bodies were never found Hmmm!!!!

We suspect it was orchostrated by the Reptillians ( possably called Thetans) to gain fresh subjects in there human skin project.

And yes the media are in the conspiracy S evidenced by the 'Documentaries' and the V TV series Old & new.
Modernmystic
1 / 5 (2) Jul 31, 2012
I understand and agree with saving children first. I'm not sure I agree with the old standby of women having some kind of priority over men though. The article seems to be biased in this direction, or is it just me?
El_Nose
not rated yet Jul 31, 2012
Well assuming, a cataclysm - you would need fewer men than women to repopulate. A few men, selective breeding for 10 generations or so and tada a new human race.

But you need every woman you can get your hands on. Face it bruh, men cannot get pregnant.

But honestly I believe the main reason the tendancy to save women is the cultural belief that women are weak, or inferior to men, and thus need saving. That they through lack of strength, cunning, or some combination of both would not survive bad situation without the help of men. This is a very British cultural thought, perpetuated in their American colonies.

I went to Catholic school where it is reinforced subtly by making boys behave chivalously, boys walking with a girl MUST walk closest to the street, the boy would be first struck by an errant car, giving the girl more reaction time, or the boy would be the one splashed by a car going through a puddle.

Chivalry is by definition sexism.
El_Nose
5 / 5 (1) Jul 31, 2012
And in the royal societies that started that cultural thought process, it was probably true. Affluent royal aristocrats did not teach women survival skills. It was a long time before it became fashionable for women to read. Indeed, it was thought that women were best when quiet and submissive to their superior male counterparts.

I am not advocating a continuing of such practices, but it helps explain why the notion that women are weak is so ingrained in British culture and in the colonies they founded around the world. Especially America.

If colonial America had, had a more Eastern European influence before the revolution, women's suffrage would never have been questioned. Indeed, you see the influence of the British in the fact at first only land owners could vote. owning land has always been equated to power. God save the Queen and her land owning family.

I am not trying to troll or even spark a discussion, just saying it is easy to see where that mentality comes from.
krundoloss
1 / 5 (1) Jul 31, 2012
The thing about conspiracies is, even if they are true, even if you can prove them, you still cant do a thing about it. I mean, just look at the 9/11 fiasco. Obviously so many things were suspect about it, but everyone just says SHHHH dont talk about it, the media and government would lie to us. So just give it up, you cannot do anything about a conspiracy, powerful people prevent it at all costs.
mattytheory
5 / 5 (1) Jul 31, 2012
@kochevnik
In what way does a British luxury ship of the early 1900's affect American politics of the same period?
Telekinetic
2 / 5 (4) Jul 31, 2012
"I am not advocating a continuing of such practices, but it helps explain why the notion that women are weak is so ingrained in British culture and in the colonies they founded around the world. Especially America."-El Nose

Patriarchy is hardly a British invention or a recent one. It began tens of thousands of years ago. Men are physically stronger than women, but women are able to withstand more pain, as in child birth. Women and children are victimized by men who threaten them with physical abuse. It's a real problem in many families of most cultures. I also don't think a woman would object to being treated deferentially if done in a non-patronizing way. Culturally, boys are trained to act decisively in an emergency, and are told fables of heroism to bolster that behavior. Girls are told a different type of fable, most likely of a passive nature. Women respond to kindness in a man, whose real strength is his tenderness.

Sean_W
1 / 5 (3) Aug 04, 2012
Clothing differences between men and women & children, a more favorable surface area to body volume and many other physical and cultural differences are completely ignored so that a picture of heartless men refusing to die quickly enough. A very modern sort of research. Ironically, more people survive in an "everyone for themselves" model of emergency reaction since you don't have separated people wasting time looking for each other but the importance of emphasizing the higher importance of women and children over men results in more deaths; more widows, more widowers, more orphans and more parents with dead children. I'm not disputing that biologically, women and children are more important than men but letting more people of all ages and both genders die to preserve the optics is just sad and pathetic.
DerickBurton
not rated yet Aug 05, 2012
This study was done by Swedish academics? How surprising. I wonder if there were less women survivors because the men outnumbered them.
Bewia
1 / 5 (1) Aug 05, 2012
IMO the interpretation of this study exhibits many signs of fringe research. At first, it's not clear for me, whether it considered the ratio of men and women before shipwrecks. For example the Titanic contained 534 women and children (w_ch), but 1667 men, i.e. w_ch represented 24.3%. Survived 247 w_chs, 338 men, i.e. w_ch represented full 42% of surviving. Women wore heavier clothes, which soak more easily and they're more difficult to swim with, members of crew are formed mostly with men and they're more hardy (shipwrecks usually happen in wrong weather). During disaster of MV Princess Victoria in 1953, one of lifeboats sinked - accidentally it was full of women and children only. Such an accidents indeed introduce a bias into statistics.
El_Nose
not rated yet Aug 09, 2012
@telekinetic

But the farther back you go the more Matriarchal societies emerge. Patriarchal societies are studied in depth, because men led the field. But truthfully the farther back you go the more matriarchal societies are. Looking to African societies in the late 1900's is not sufficient, because they were influenced by the late period Egyptian which were influenced by Babylon, Ottoman, and Persian societies.

The farther back archaeologists reach the more influence women had, and that was gradually stripped away and is now coming back. The early Egyptians were matriarchal, knowing that only the woman can truly know the father of a child. But that is rarely talked about.