AI technology generates original proteins from scratch

Scientists have created an AI system capable of generating artificial enzymes from scratch. In laboratory tests, some of these enzymes worked as well as those found in nature, even when their artificially generated amino ...

How cells gain control over their bacterial symbionts

Modern eukaryotic cells contain numerous organelles, which once used to be independent bacteria. In order to understand how these bacteria were integrated into the cells in the course of evolution and how they are controlled, ...

Why synonymous mutations are not always silent

New modeling shows how synonymous mutations—those that change the DNA sequence of a gene but not the sequence of the encoded protein—can still impact protein production and function. A team of researchers led by Penn ...

DNA sequence enhances our understanding of the origins of jaws

The vast majority of vertebrate species living today, including humans, belong to the jawed vertebrate group. The development of articulating jaws during vertebrate evolution was one of the most significant evolutionary transitions ...

Efficient mRNA delivery by branched lipids

Messenger RNA (mRNA) are biological molecules that transfer the information coded by genes in the nucleus to the cytoplasm for protein synthesis by ribosomes. mRNA sequences can be designed to encode specific proteins; the ...

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