Related topics: cells · protein · cell death · neurons · brain

New aging-related molecular pathway discovered

A collaborative project between the labs of Maulik Patel, assistant professor of biological sciences, and Kris Burkewitz, assistant professor of cell and developmental biology, has identified a new molecular pathway that ...

Cell biology: How mitochondria report stress

Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich researchers have discovered the mechanism by which the protein DELE1 detects organelle stress. This offers a possible new approach for treating neurodegenerative diseases.

New function for glucose metabolism enzyme

The function of the glycolytic enzyme hexokinase 1 differs depending on its location within the cell, according to a Northwestern Medicine study published in Molecular Cell.

Malaria parasite's survival linked to two proteins

Malaria, a mosquito-borne disease, killed more than 620,000 people worldwide in 2020. Jeopardizing the survival of Plasmodium falciparum, the malaria parasite, is one way to control the spread of this deadly disease.

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Mitochondrion

In cell biology, a mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. These organelles range from 0.5–10 micrometers (μm) in diameter. Mitochondria are sometimes described as "cellular power plants" because they generate most of the cell's supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), used as a source of chemical energy. In addition to supplying cellular energy, mitochondria are involved in a range of other processes, such as signaling, cellular differentiation, cell death, as well as the control of the cell cycle and cell growth. Mitochondria have been implicated in several human diseases, including mitochondrial disorders and cardiac dysfunction, and may play a role in the aging process. The word mitochondrion comes from the Greek μίτος or mitos, thread + χονδρίον or khondrion, granule.

Several characteristics make mitochondria unique. The number of mitochondria in a cell varies widely by organism and tissue type. Many cells have only a single mitochondrion, whereas others can contain several thousand mitochondria. The organelle is composed of compartments that carry out specialized functions. These compartments or regions include the outer membrane, the intermembrane space, the inner membrane, and the cristae and matrix. Mitochondrial proteins vary depending on the tissue and the species. In humans, 615 distinct types of proteins have been identified from cardiac mitochondria; whereas in Murinae (rats), 940 proteins encoded by distinct genes have been reported. The mitochondrial proteome is thought to be dynamically regulated. Although most of a cell's DNA is contained in the cell nucleus, the mitochondrion has its own independent genome. Further, its DNA shows substantial similarity to bacterial genomes.

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