Related topics: protein · cell membrane

Key acid-activated protein channel identified

Johns Hopkins researchers have discovered a long-sought protein, the proton-activated chloride channel (PAC), that is activated in acidic environments and could protect against the tissue-damaging effects of stroke, heart ...

Designing biological movement on the nanometer scale

Synthetic proteins have been created that move in response to their environment in predictable and tunable ways. These motile molecules were designed from scratch on computers, then produced inside living cells.

Surface protein editing in bacteria

University of Minnesota researchers have discovered this previously unknown signaling pathway that regulates surface proteins on bacteria that can lead to new targets for antibiotics.

New approach for solving protein structures from tiny crystals

Using x-rays to reveal the atomic-scale 3-D structures of proteins has led to countless advances in understanding how these molecules work in bacteria, viruses, plants, and humans—and has guided the development of precision ...

Breaking open the gates of antibiotic resistance

Antibiotic resistance is a major health threat, with about two million people in the US getting an antibiotic-resistant infection per year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Gram negative ...

Bringing information into the cell

Researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) have elucidated an important part of a signal pathway that transmits information through the cell membrane into the interior of a cell.

Novel approach promises ready access to hard-to-study proteins

DNA and the genome, we know, provide the blueprint for life. But it is the proteins made according to the genome's instructions that are the nuts and bolts of living organisms, providing the molecular building blocks for ...

New electron microscopy technique limits membrane destruction

Membrane proteins play an important role in many biological processes. Studies suggest they're targeted by more than 50% of all modern medicinal drugs. Unfortunately for researchers, determining their structures has been ...

Cell lesson: better coordinated than isolated

A new study led by Juana Díez, principal investigator of the Department of Experimental and Health Sciences (DCEXS) at UPF, has found a new system in cells that makes them more robust against possible alterations in the ...

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Membrane protein

A membrane protein is a protein molecule that is attached to, or associated with the membrane of a cell or an organelle. More than half of all proteins interact with membranes.

Biological membranes consist of a phospholipid bilayer and a variety of proteins that accomplish vital biological functions. Structural proteins are attached to microfilaments in the cytoskeleton which ensures stability of the cell. Cell recognition proteins allow cells to identify each other and interact. Such proteins are involved in immune response, for example. Membrane enzymes produce a variety of substances essential for cell function. Membrane receptor proteins serve as connection between the cell's internal and external environments. Finally, transport proteins play an important role in the maintenance of concentrations of ions. These transport proteins come in two forms: carrier proteins and channel proteins. Carrier proteins are involved in using the energy released from ATP being broken down to facilitate active transport and ion exchange. These processes ensure that useful substances are able to enter the cell and that toxic substances are pumped out of the cell.

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