Digitalization did not increase productivity as expected

Big data, the Internet of Things (IoT), the Industrial Internet and Industry 4.0 and later, 5G and artificial intelligence were presented as drivers of productivity, and experts predicted that the productivity of industry ...

'Harvesting' microparticles from a liquid jet

Microspheres, microlenses and microfibers can now be produced by irradiating a fluid jet with ultraviolet light. The result is that locally, a polymer of a desired shape is formed. This process, called in-air photopolymerization, ...

3-D-printed glass enhances optical design flexibility

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers have used multi-material 3-D printing to create tailored gradient refractive index glass optics that could make for better military specialized eyewear and virtual ...

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Manufacturing

Manufacturing is the use of machines, tools and labor to produce goods for use or sale. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale. Such finished goods may be used for manufacturing other, more complex products, such as aircraft, household appliances or automobiles, or sold to wholesalers, who in turn sell them to retailers, who then sell them to end users – the "consumers".

Manufacturing takes turns under all types of economic systems. In a free market economy, manufacturing is usually directed toward the mass production of products for sale to consumers at a profit. In a collectivist economy, manufacturing is more frequently directed by the state to supply a centrally planned economy. In free market economies, manufacturing occurs under some degree of government regulation.

Modern manufacturing includes all intermediate processes required for the production and integration of a product's components. Some industries, such as semiconductor and steel manufacturers use the term fabrication instead.

The manufacturing sector is closely connected with engineering and industrial design. Examples of major manufacturers in North America include General Motors Corporation, General Electric, and Pfizer. Examples in Europe include Volkswagen Group, Siemens, and Michelin. Examples in Asia include Toyota, Samsung, and Bridgestone.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA