A polar-bear-inspired material for heat insulation

For polar bears, the insulation provided by their fat, skin, and fur is a matter of survival in the frigid Arctic. For engineers, polar bear hair is a dream template for synthetic materials that might lock in heat just as ...

Intercultural communication crucial for engineering education

In an increasingly connected world it helps to engage with other cultures without prejudice or assumption. This is true in engineering as it is in any other field, but UTokyo researchers reveal shortcomings in how intercultural ...

Oceans: They pollute, they pay

In an effort to combat ocean plastic pollution, the EU has just adopted ambitious new legislation targeting ten of the most common single-use plastic products washing up on beaches and imposing greater responsibility on plastic ...

Artificial intelligence, the future of work, and inequality

One of the most spectacular facts of the last two centuries of economic history is the exponential growth in GDP per capita in most of the world. Figure 1 shows the rise (and the difference) in living standards for five countries ...

Germany fines Bosch over 'dieselgate' role

German prosecutors said Thursday they had fined car parts supplier Bosch 90 million euros ($100 million) over its role supplying components in the "dieselgate" emissions cheating scandal.

Electric cars: Current trends make for a shocking change

While vehicle manufacturers invest in research, authorities are working to improve charging infrastructure to support consumers' growing interest in the sector. The day when electric cars dominate the passenger transport ...

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Manufacturing

Manufacturing is the use of machines, tools and labor to produce goods for use or sale. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale. Such finished goods may be used for manufacturing other, more complex products, such as aircraft, household appliances or automobiles, or sold to wholesalers, who in turn sell them to retailers, who then sell them to end users – the "consumers".

Manufacturing takes turns under all types of economic systems. In a free market economy, manufacturing is usually directed toward the mass production of products for sale to consumers at a profit. In a collectivist economy, manufacturing is more frequently directed by the state to supply a centrally planned economy. In free market economies, manufacturing occurs under some degree of government regulation.

Modern manufacturing includes all intermediate processes required for the production and integration of a product's components. Some industries, such as semiconductor and steel manufacturers use the term fabrication instead.

The manufacturing sector is closely connected with engineering and industrial design. Examples of major manufacturers in North America include General Motors Corporation, General Electric, and Pfizer. Examples in Europe include Volkswagen Group, Siemens, and Michelin. Examples in Asia include Toyota, Samsung, and Bridgestone.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA