Plant cellulose prevents short circuits in batteries

(—In order to prevent short circuits in batteries, porous separator membranes are often placed between a battery's electrodes. There is typically a tradeoff involved, since these separators must simultaneously ...

Synthetic material acts like an insect cloaking device

Synthetic microspheres with nanoscale holes can absorb light from all directions across a wide range of frequencies, making them a candidate for antireflective coatings, according to a team of Penn State engineers. The synthetic ...

Team visualizes complex electronic state

A material called sodium manganese dioxide has shown promise for use in electrodes in rechargeable batteries. Now a team of researchers has produced the first detailed visualization—down to the level of individual atoms—of ...

Chemists mimic bombardier beetles to safeguard ATMs

( —A team of chemists in Switzerland has developed a new way to protect cash inside of ATM machines from thieves—by automatically setting off a nasty chemical reaction if the machine is molested. The group has ...

Interfaces are key in metal oxide superlattices

(—Materials called transition metal oxides have physicists intrigued by their potentially useful properties—from magnetoresistance (the reason a hard drive can write memory) to superconductivity.

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Manganese ( /ˈmæŋɡəniːz/ mang-gə-neez) is a chemical element, designated by the symbol Mn. It has the atomic number 25. It is found as a free element in nature (often in combination with iron), and in many minerals. As a free element, manganese is a metal with important industrial metal alloy uses, particularly in stainless steels.

Manganese phosphating is used as a treatment for rust and corrosion prevention on steel. Depending on their oxidation state, manganese ions have various colors and are used industrially as pigments. The permanganates of alkali and alkaline earth metals are powerful oxidizers. Manganese dioxide is used as the cathode (electron acceptor) material in standard and alkaline disposable dry cells and batteries.

Manganese(II) ions function as cofactors for a number of enzymes in higher organisms, where they are essential in detoxification of superoxide free radicals. The element is a required trace mineral for all known living organisms. In larger amounts, and apparently with far greater activity by inhalation, manganese can cause a poisoning syndrome in mammals, with neurological damage which is sometimes irreversible.

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