Related topics: enzyme · cells · protein · amino acids

New enzyme could mean better drugs

Just as a choreographer's notation tells a dancer to strike a particular pose, an enzyme newly discovered by Rice University scientists is able to tell specific molecules precisely how to arrange themselves, down to the angle ...

Symptoms of illness help pathogens spread among songbirds

It's "Treasure Island" author Robert Louis Stevenson who is credited with coining the phrase "You cannot make an omelet without breaking eggs." For us humans, it's now cliché. For pathogens, these are words to live by. Or, ...

How to turn a tentacle into a foot

All multicellular organisms, including humans, animals and plants, are made up of specialized cells called differentiated cells. Thus, the cells that make up the epidermis do not have the same identity—nor the same function—as ...

Layered feedback mechanisms add control to engineered cells

Dr. Chelsea Hu, an assistant professor in the Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering at Texas A&M University and a member of the Accountability, Climate, Equity, and Scholarship (ACES) Faculty Fellows Program, ...

How deep learning empowers cell image analysis

The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of life, with varying sizes, shapes, and densities. There are many different physiological and pathological factors that influence these parameters. It is therefore extremely ...

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Organism

In biology, an organism is any living system (such as animal, plant, fungus, or micro-organism). In at least some form, all organisms are capable of response to stimuli, reproduction, growth and development, and maintenance of homeostasis as a stable whole. An organism may either be unicellular (single-celled) or be composed of, as in humans, many billions of cells grouped into specialized tissues and organs. The term multicellular (many-celled) describes any organism made up of more than one cell.

The terms "organism" (Greek ὀργανισμός - organismos, from Ancient Greek ὄργανον - organon "organ, instrument, tool") first appeared in the English language in 1701 and took on its current definition by 1834 (Oxford English Dictionary).

Scientific classification in biology considers organisms synonymous with life on Earth. Based on cell type, organisms may be divided into the prokaryotic and eukaryotic groups. The prokaryotes represent two separate domains, the Bacteria and Archaea. Eukaryotic organisms, with a membrane-bounded cell nucleus, also contain organelles, namely mitochondria and (in plants) plastids, generally considered to be derived from endosymbiotic bacteria. Fungi, animals and plants are examples of species that are eukaryotes.

More recently a clade, Neomura, has been proposed, which groups together the Archaea and Eukarya. Neomura is thought to have evolved from Bacteria, more specifically from Actinobacteria.

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