Related topics: genome · genes · protein · genetic variation · dna

How bacteriophage resistance shapes Salmonella populations

Researchers from the Quadram Institute and the University of East Anglia have uncovered how resistance has helped drive the emergence of dominant strains of Salmonella. In addition to antimicrobial resistance, resistance ...

AI tailors artificial DNA for future drug development

With the help of an AI, researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, have succeeded in designing synthetic DNA that controls the cells' protein production. The technology can contribute to the development and ...

Genetic 'hitchhikers' can be directed using CRISPR

In a new study, North Carolina State University researchers characterize a range of molecular tools to rewrite—not just edit—large chunks of an organism's DNA, based on CRISPR-Cas systems associated with selfish genetic ...

Scientists crack the genome of Singapore's national flower

A collaboration between A*STAR's Genome Institute of Singapore (GIS) and SingHealth Duke-NUS Institute of Biodiversity Medicine (BD-MED) has decoded the entire genetic blueprint of Singapore's National Flower, Papilionanthe ...

New research shows how octopuses may have evolved

A new paper in Genome Biology and Evolution indicates that a type of octopus appears to have evolved independently to develop something resembling a shell, despite having lost the genetic code that produced actual shells ...

How cells turn independent and regulate functions

With his thesis, Jacob Lewerentz, Department of Molecular Biology at Umeå University, contributes to the knowledge about how cells regulate their protein level and adapt to a new milieu outside their organism. He has also ...

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Genetic code

The genetic code is the set of rules by which information encoded in genetic material (DNA or RNA sequences) is translated into proteins (amino acid sequences) by living cells. The code defines a mapping between tri-nucleotide sequences, called codons, and amino acids. A triplet codon in a nucleic acid sequence usually specifies a single amino acid (though in some cases the same codon triplet in different locations can code unambiguously for two different amino acids, the correct choice at each location being determined by context). Because the vast majority of genes are encoded with exactly the same code (see the RNA codon table), this particular code is often referred to as the canonical or standard genetic code, or simply the genetic code, though in fact there are many variant codes. Thus the canonical genetic code is not universal. For example, in humans, protein synthesis in mitochondria relies on a genetic code that varies from the canonical code.

It is important to know that not all genetic information is stored using the genetic code. All organisms' DNA contain regulatory sequences, intergenic segments, and chromosomal structural areas that can contribute greatly to phenotype but operate using distinct sets of rules that may or may not be as straightforward as the codon-to-amino acid paradigm that usually underlies the genetic code (see epigenetics).

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